Journal of Extension Systems

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2015, Volume 31(2), December

EDITORIAL, O. S. Verma

  1. e-Readiness of Agricultural Extension Personnel with the use of ICTs in Agricultural Extension Systems, I. Raksha, Sreenivasa Rao, & Meera N. Shaik
  2. Mobile ICT Integration in Extension Service Delivery: Case Assessment of Application variance in Extension Tasks in Southwest Nigeria, O. A. Adebowale Lawal
  3. Effect of Communication Pattern on Agricultural Employees’ Job Performance, Bolaji G. Abiona
  4. Structure and Functioning of Dairy-Based Self-Help Groups in Riwari District of Haryana, Rekha Yadav, M.P. Sagar, & Jyoti Yadav
  5. Biodiversity, Social Actors and Networks Enlarging the Dialogues, Flavia Charao Marques, Lidiana Fernandes da Luz, & Rumi Regina Kubo
  6. Socio-Economic Status of Fishermen Community in Kashmir of India, Rizwana Malik, Mansoor Ahmad Rather, & Adnan Abubakr
  7. Trend and Task to Widespread Vertical Indoor Greenery System (VIGS), Mamoru Inoue
  8. Assess the Constraints Perceived by Vegetable Growers in Adoption of Eco-Friendly Technology in Madhya Pradesh, Neeraja Patel, Sandeep Chouhan, & Sandhya Choudhary
  9. Epidemiological Study of Occupational Injuries Among Farmers in Iran, K. Arkavazi & K. Zarafshani

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Editorial

RIGHT TO SERVICE: A Critical Preview

Basic services are so important for our well-being that everyone of us in the Society expects to have free access to them. People think it to be their basic right. There are libraries which do not contain every book but they still provide free access to people for possessing knowledge. We have free basic healthcare for which hospitals are there. These hospitals do not provide every treatment but they still save people’s lives. We have free basic education where every child has access to go to schools. Right to Decent Loos has recently been upheld especially for women who are outdoors. They have right to have safe and clean toilet, right to live with human dignity. Right to pee has thus become a National priority. And in 21st century, people also deserve access to free delivery of the Basic Services in a “Set Time-Frame” without paying any penny. This is what is called the “Right to Service”.

Maharashtra State in India had Right to Services Act known as “Maharashtra Government Servants Regulation of Transfer and Prevention of delay in Discharge of Official Duties Act-2005”. Rules for implementation of this act were notified in 2013. Taken together with its rules, no officer can “Delay” a response to a Citizen’s Application, Representation, or Complaint for over 90 days. The tragedy, however, is that the government bodies are still not cognizant of this people-friendly notification. Citizens too are not aware of this Act. Hence, the severity of the Act is still not realized.

Under the Act, penalties are imposed and disciplinary action is taken against the errant officials who fail to deliver the services within the specified time-frame. Action against citizens is an inbuilt mechanism if false and frivolous information or documents are submitted to obtain public services. Right of an eligible person to obtain public services within stipulated time limit has to be notified by a public authority within which the designated officer has to deliver the service. A unique Application Number is given to the person seeking services so as to monitor the status of his appellation in real time. If the citizen has complaint against the designated officer, he can approach the “First Appellate Authority” for delay in service delivery. If the first appellate authority does not address the citizen’s complaint, he can reach the “Second Appellate Authority”. If he is still not satisfied, he can take up his Application with the “State Commissioner For Right To Service”. Finally, if there is still no relief, he can file his Suit in the “Consumer Forum” as the non-delivery of the service will then amount to Deficiency in Service. This is how officials are made accountable and you can not lie under the Right to Service law.

In order to ensure action against the Designated official, some officer …

O. S. Verma
Chief Editor

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e-Readiness of Agricultural Extension Personnel with the use of ICTs in Agricultural Extension Systems

I. Raksha, Sreenivasa Rao, & Meera N. Shaik
Email: raksha.ee@gmail.com

The present paper is based on the findings of factors determining the e-readiness of agricultural extension personnel with the use of ICTs in agricultural extension systems. The association of the independent variables like age, gender, education, nativity, trainings and psychological variables etc. with dependent variable “e-readiness” was studied. The findings show that nativity, possession of smart gadgets, perceived attributes of ICTs, methods of learning ICTs skills, trainings received, achievement motivation, and innovativeness were positively correlated with the e-readiness whereas age, gender and number of years of service were found negatively correlated with e-readiness of extension personnel with the use of ICTs.

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Mobile ICT Integration in Extension Service Delivery: Case Assessment of Application variance in Extension Tasks in Southwest Nigeria

O. A. Adebowale Lawal
Email: deoaks@gmail.com

The study examined the usage of mobile information and communication technologies (ICTs) in execution of extension tasks by extension personnel in southwest Nigeria. Findings are that mobile phones, laptops, and multimedia projectors were intensively used by all the extension personnel. Extension tasks executed were connectivity and linkages with stakeholders in agricultural development, presentation and teaching of extension messages, typesetting, and sourcing of extension information. Effects of mobile ICT applications in extension tasks executions include enhanced quality time usage in reaching out stakeholders in agriculture, reduced the risks of having to travel round the extension clients for interactions, and enhanced social interactions. Recommendation is that among several emerging mobile ICTs, appropriation of the devices for extension service delivery should be ensured.

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Effect of Communication Pattern on Agricultural Employees’ Job Performance

Bolaji G. Abiona
Email: dolace6ng@gmail.com

This study assessed the influence of communication pattern on agricultural employees’ job performance. Data were collected from 61 randomly selected respondents using a structured questionnaire. Perceived communication pattern that influences job performance include: attitude of the administrators (x̄ = 3.41), physical barriers to communication flow among employees (x̄ = 3.21), poor communication reduces cooperation and teamwork of employees (x̄ = 3.12), and wrong pattern of communication (x̄ =3.06). Major challenges to respondents’ job performance were different language among employees (x̄ = 3.12), employees perception on Organizational issues (x̄ =3.09), networking (x̄ = 2.88), and unclear definition of work (x̄ = 2.74). A significant relationship was found between employees’ perceived communication pattern (r = 0.423, p <0.00) and job performance. Information must be well designed in such a way that could positively influence employees’ job performance.

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Structure and Functioning of Dairy-Based Self-Help Groups in Riwari District of Haryana

Rekha Yadav, M.P. Sagar, & Jyoti Yadav
Email: rekha04yadav@gmail.com

In order to study the structure and functioning of SHGs, a structured interview schedule was developed. The data were collected from 90 respondents drawn from 30 SHGs. The study findings revealed that most of the SHGs were functioning for the last three to six years, have 10 members, home as the place of meetings, conducted weekly meetings, penalty was not imposed on absentee members, no chronic absentee in their groups, monthly saving D 100, and 7.15 average milk yield per day. There has always been predetermined schedule for holding the meetings and proceedings were recorded by an office bearer followed collective decision making during meeting itself. Decision making power, however, was vested in the office bearers. SHGs maintain various types of records. Three types of leadership position were normally found, i.e. President, Secretary, and Treasurer.

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Biodiversity, Social Actors and Networks Enlarging the Dialogues

Flavia Charao Marques, Lidiana Fernandes da Luz, & Rumi Regina Kubo
Email: flavia.marques@ufrgs.br

This paper presents an analysis of the social actors networking towards the feasibility of using native biodiversity for food production based on an empirical study conducted in South Brazil. Specifically, the North Coast Region has had a series of environmental problems resulting in conflicts on the use of resources. The search for solutions and public debate brought together farmers’ organizations, social movements, NGOs, government agencies, and academic groups. Recently, some of these actors established a common platform to raise food production based on native species of fruits giving rise to the ‘agrobiodiversity network’ in part by the activation of pre-existing networks but also requiring the entry of new players. On the other hand, forming agreements between different actors to consolidate the network has been difficult especially about the issue of rules that limit the access to native species and those that regulate food processing. The analysis has shown that the involved actors are amplifying the dialogues and collective learning processes thus building a common ground and shared beliefs.

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Socio-Economic Status of Fishermen Community in Kashmir of India

Rizwana Malik, Mansoor Ahmad Rather, & Adnan Abubakr
Email: mansooraqua@gmail.com

The purpose of this study was to identify the detailed socio-economic profiles of the fishers inhabiting the highest number of fishers in the state of Kashmir. The findings revealed that fishing community of this state lives in abject poverty practicing traditional fishing methods that either need improvement or replacement by modern scientific technology. Study further revealed that 99% of the population is educated up to primary level with 0% participation in extension programs and 87.5% have low information sources. Impoverishment has led to a negative impact on the socio - psychological behavior of the fishers. Fishers are facing problems in procuring basic amenities of life that mark a sure deprivation and neglect of the community from governmental supports. Trainings and technological interventions alone will not help the community cope up with the financial stress, some definite support from governmental and non – governmental organizations play an instrumental role in their socio - economic upliftment. Formation of Cooperatives and Self-Help Groups (SHGs) may be a positive move to bring change in their lives and help them achieve goals they dreamt for.

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Trend and Task to Widespread Vertical Indoor Greenery System (VIGS)

Mamoru Inoue
Email: inoue-mamoru@horticulture.ac.jp

Vertical Indoor Greenery System (VIGS) is expected to expand not only in Japan but also all over the world. In order for people from around the world who use VIGS, this paper is hope to give them guidance and latest information in developing courses and issues by analyzing the 22 patent applications related to “green wall + indoor”. Patents are often related to work reduction, growth, and design improvement. In addition, patents are not only important for their construction but also for their maintenance.

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Assess the Constraints Perceived by Vegetable Growers in Adoption of Eco-Friendly Technology in Madhya Pradesh

Neeraja Patel, Sandeep Chouhan, & Sandhya Choudhary
Email: neerjapatel1988@gmail.com

This study was conducted in Indore district of Madhya Pradesh with the sample size of 120 Vegetable Growers. These 120 vegetable growers were drawn from 10 vegetable growing villages using proportionate random sampling technique. Based on the experts’ opinion, recommended vegetable cultivation practices were selected for studying the adoption behaviour. All the selected farmers were interviewed personally using a well-structured interview schedule. For the analysis of collected data, descriptive statistics like percentage and analytical statistics were used. The majority of the respondents faced several constraints in adopting the eco-friendly management practices. High yielding resistant varieties were costly and thus the vegetable growers were unable to purchase those (81.66%). Moreover, less training on eco-friendly management practices was received by the farmers (76.66%) along with less subsidies and technical support from the government (62.50%). Low knowledge about the environmental issues (50%), less participation of the farmers in extension programmes (41.66%), and inadequate environmental education at the secondary level (29.16%) also hindered the adoption of eco-friendly management practices.

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Epidemiological Study of Occupational Injuries Among Farmers in Iran

K. Arkavazi & K. Zarafshani
Email: karkavazi@yahoo.com

Agriculture is among the top three most dangerous occupations in the world. Farm injuries are, therefore, more prevalent in it as compared to other work-related injuries. In Iran, outdated farm machineries coupled with unsafe working conditions have exposed farmers to a wide variety of job injuries. However, research on farm injury types and sources of injuries are scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this epidemiological research design was to identify the most prevalent farm injuries in Kermanshah townships in Iran. Data were collected from a census of farmers who were injured during farm practices (N=90). A researcher made questionnaire was used to collect data. The validity and reliability of research instrument was verified using panel of experts and alpha coefficient respectively. Results revealed that the most prevalent job injuries among farmers were: amputations, fractures, cuts and bruises, and muscle-skeletal defects. Moreover, tractors, water pumps, carrying heavy objects, and heavy workloads played major role in farm injuries. Results of this study have implications for agricultural extension service as well as professional health services in Kermanshah province. Extension agents can use the results in adult education programs in order to reduce injuries among farmers.

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