Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
2016, Volume 32(1), June
EDITORIAL, O. S. Verma
Adaptation of an Agricultural Extension Service to Changing Conditions: The Case of Israel, Abraham Blum & Robert H. Smith
Awareness and Adoption of Rainwater Harvesting: Influence of Gender, Formal Education and Social Economic Status, Michael G. Kanyi & David E. Lawver
Horticulture Hubs in Khasi Hills of Meghalaya: A Case Study , R. SYIEM & B. R. MARAK
Willingness of Nigerian Quail Farmers to Accept Japanese Quail for Large Scale Production in Ogun State, Nigeria, Adetayo K. AROMOLARAN, Samson O. APANTAKU, Comfort I. SODIYA, Obakunle O. KUTI
Grassroot Innovations in Fishing Rafts in India , Shivta Kureel, Arpita Sharma, & Suhas Wasave
ICT Productivity in Agriculture, Anoj Chhetri
Information Needs of Farm Women of Uttarakhand, Arpita Sharma
Impediments Faced by Women SHGs Under Integrated Watershed Management Programme, M. K. BARIYA, P. R. Kanani, & S. J. Parmar
News, Views, and Reviews: Healthcare Consciousness with Tea, Om S. Verma
In India, a salaried person works 40 hours per week under the generally accepted norm of Nine to Five job schedule. In comparison, Indians log longer hours than the most others. Average weekly hours worked on the job as shown in the Pictorial (2014) indicate that Turkey topped the list at 49.1 hours followed by Mexico at 44.7 hours, South Korea at 43.3 hours, and Israel at 40.4 hours. At the other end of the spectrum, developed countries like Netherlands, Denmark and Norway reported the lowest hours at 28.9, 32.5 and 33.9 hours per week respectively. The question is whether long working hours means more progress, more productivity, and more development. The answer is “NO”, not at all. ILO Report-2007 “Working Time around the world” reveals that lesser percentage of workforce in developed economics put in long hours of work as compared to developing countries. For example, in Norway, only 5.3 per cent of total work force work more than the normal 48 hours per week whereas in Peru and Korea about 50 per cent people work more than 48 hours per week. In USA, it is 18.1 per cent work force more than 48 hours as against India where 40 per cent of total work force works more than 48 hours per week. This only indicates that it is not the longer hours of work that matters but it is the Decent work done in the given time framework.
In an experiment conducted by Swedish Government (2016) found that those who worked for 6 hours a day took half as much sick-leave as those who worked 8 hours per day and 2.8 times less time off. In addition, in “six hours work a day” policy, people were found 20 per cent happier and put more energy at their work. This, as a result, gave them time to do 64 per cent more activities other than the office duty. In Sweden’s private sector, the practice is taking root in places such as Toyato Service Centre at Gothmeburg. In UK, a marketing agency adopted a staggering Schedule to allow for reduced work hours. Six out of ten Bosses in UK agree that cutting hours improve productivity. The key result that productivity increases with fewer hours of work eliminates a major stumbling block to globalizing the shorter workday. These studies equate productivity with quality of care which does not necessarily translate to white-collar work.
Prof. Colin McKenzie from Keio University in Australia reported (2016) that middle-aged people over 40 are most productive while working just for 3 days a week. In his experiment, he found that the cognitive performance of middle-aged people improves up to 25 hours a week. When the week goes over 25 hours, overall performance decreases as “fatigue and stress” take their effect which potentially damage cognitive functions. He further says that those working 55 hours a week produced the worst result. This only suggests that middle-aged and old-age persons while working “Part-Time” can be more effective in maintaining cognitive ability. This research came amid the moves when many countries are raising the retirement age. British State pension age is closer to 70. In USA, retirement age is 65 years and in Japan it is at 69 years. In India, government has raised the retirement age at 65 especially for Doctors and Scientists. This is by default out of choice, not necessity.
ILO has suggested that the Standards of Working Hours should be reduced from the Statutory time. The objective is to improve the quality of work through the reduced working time and the competitiveness through greater flexibility in working time schedule. In addition, strong regulation is necessary. There is also a great need for social dialogues so as to look after the workers needs and circumstances. Tertiarization, “the service sector, formal job, and informal employment” also need a policy document to curb exploitation. All these initiatives will enhance productivity. This is where the balance lies.
Dr. O. S. VERMA
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Adaptation of an Agricultural Extension Service to Changing Conditions: The Case of Israel
Abraham Blum & Robert H. Smith
The first agricultural extension services were created, when previous attempts to spread know-how were no longer appropriate. One of the major criteria to evaluate existing extension systems is to analyze, how they adapted their services to different client groups and to changed agro-technical, economical and social circumstances. The paper analyzes what major changes were needed in the Israeli extension system, and how the extension service adapted its work to these changes. The major challenges were: how to work with new immigrants and growers in different settlement types, how to up-grade advisers’ formal and informal knowledge level. The most critical problem came with serious cuts and governmental demand to privatize the agricultural extension service.
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Awareness and Adoption of Rainwater Harvesting: Influence of Gender, Formal Education and Social Economic Status
Michael G. Kanyi & David E. Lawver
The primary focus of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, formal education and social economic status on awareness of rooftop rainwater harvesting. A random sample of 310 smallholder farmers was used. A questionnaire was developed for data collection. Hypotheses were tested at a = .05 set a priori. Educational level indicated a statistically significant influence but gender and SES did not. It was concluded that formal education has statistically significant influence on awareness and adoption of rainwater harvesting. It was recommended that extension service providers consider using multimedia and diverse extension methodologies that are suitable and acceptable across demographics.
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Horticulture Hubs in Khasi Hills of Meghalaya: A Case Study
R. SYIEM & B. R. MARAK
The paper focuses on the innovative extension practice of ‘Horticulture-Hubs’ (horti-hubs) following the “hub and spoke’ model under Technology Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture in Meghalaya and a special State Plan Assistance Scheme on Capital Investment. The study highlights the socio-economic characteristics of farmers associated with horti-hub. The study reports that 60 per cent of the farmers increased their income through horticulture hub. Similarly, 87 per cent of the farmers got additional employment opportunity through horticulture hub while 47 per cent of them registered an increase in production through area expansion. From overall findings of the study, it can be concluded that with suitable agro-climatic conditions and high market demand for horticulture crops, the creation of horti-hubs in the state can encourage entrepreneurship amongst farmers to improve the socio-economic condition and enhance their level of income.
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Willingness of Nigerian Quail Farmers to Accept Japanese Quail for Large Scale Production in Ogun State, Nigeria
Adetayo K. AROMOLARAN, Samson O. APANTAKU, Comfort I. SODIYA, Obakunle O. KUTI
The study investigated willingness of Nigerian quail farmers to accept Japanese quail for large scale productions. Snowball sampling technique was used to select Ninety quail farmers. Only 43.3% of them were willing to accept Japanese quail for large scale production. Most (66.7%) were not aware of its health values while 3.3% had excellent knowledge in quail’s management practices. Significant relationship (r = 0.466, p < 0.05) exists between farmers’ awareness and willingness to accept Japanese quail. It is recommended that extension agencies in Nigeria should provide package training to Nigerian farmers on Japanese quails’ value and management practices so as to improve their knowledge in sustainable quail production.
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Grassroot Innovations in Fishing Rafts in India
Shivta Kureel, Arpita Sharma, & Suhas Wasave
Fisheries are entirely a people driven industry and have been growing at an impressive rate. Innovations in fisheries sector are happening continuously that lead to the creation of novel solutions to both common and uncommon problems faced by fishers. Different kinds of fishing boats and rafts are used in fishing which is expensive for poor fishers hence; innovations are a phenomenon in the development of fishing rafts. These innovations are made from locally available materials. Keeping this assertion in mind, a study was conducted with an objective to record the innovations on the development of fishing rafts and to check the appropriateness of these innovations on select parameters. The case of five innovations has been examined and discussed in this paper and confirmed by means of a personal visit. Appropriateness of these innovations was tested on a five-point Likert scale. Point 5 being highly appropriate and 1 being least appropriate with innovation considered as appropriate if its score was above 3. Innovations were ranked by respondents (N= 140) who had graduation in Fisheries Sciences and all innovations were found to be appropriate with a score of above 3/5. It was observed that these innovations are contributing to the economic saving of the fishers and they are very effective in daily use and found efficiently contributing to routine work. The government must encourage farmers who are practising innovative methods which are easy to use, sustainable and offer economic incentives for good practices.
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ICT Productivity in Agriculture
This paper describes about how to apply information and communication technologies (ICTs) to solve agricultural problems. It presents research findings on Agriculture ICT (AgICT) impact on the agricultural performance. It talks about how ICT enhances extension services by applying tools such as mobile phone, SMS, call centres, etc. This papers presents some research findings on the ICT productivity stating that farmers using AgICT in farming activities have increased 5.91 % of their farm productivity compared to the immediate past year while farmers having no exposure to AgICT increased only 3.90% of farm productivity. This can apparently be assumed that the AgICT alone can contribute 2.01% increase in farm productivity.
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Information Needs of Farm Women of Uttarakhand
Farm women in Uttarakhand play an important role in managing different kinds of farming and home affairs. Information for women involved in an enterprise is important to understand the production process and the economics of production. A sample of 100 farm women was selected using Simple Random Sampling technique. The survey research design was used for data collection. Data were also collected through interview schedule. Data were analyzed using quantitative approaches. Results show that the information needs of farm women are mostly occupation driven. Farm women were found to have a need for information about dairy farming as also for home management. Most of the farm women depend on the friends, husband, neighbors and other native sources like local leaders and educated people for their information needs. Thus, their primary and most important sources of information are friends, husband, neighbors and other native sources.
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Impediments Faced by Women SHGs Under Integrated Watershed Management Programme
M. K. BARIYA, P. R. Kanani, & S. J. Parmar
The present study was an attempt to identify the impediments faced by SHGs under Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP). A total of 90 women self help group members as respondents were selected from Amreli district of Gujarat. The study findings revealed that the self help group women mainly encountered with the lack of knowledge in record maintenance. Their dependency on family male member was another impediment in solving money problems. Handling of bank account in which SHG Women were unaware of the rules has continuation of project and its expansion in other villages by establishing new SHG and addition of new activities have been largely suggested by most SHG-women. Although they were found not competent in performing bank formalities, yet their co-ordination among members and interpersonal trust were intact. Internal loaning and loaning through bank, clashes in their loan taking time, lack of time for meeting, dependency on members of family, and lack of marketing information needed major reforms as suggested by SHG members.
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News, Views, and Reviews: Healthcare Consciousness with Tea
Dr. Om. S. Verma
This is 11th instalment in the series of Articles on Healthcare Consciousness. Normally, people think that Tea is a kind of beverage especially meant for elderly people. This is a Myth. After water, Tea is most widely consumed popular drink in the world across all ages. Even though India is the world’s biggest consumer of tea, its annual per capita consumption is among the lowest. Turkey is on the top consuming 3.15 kg average annual tea per person. Ireland follows it at 2.19 kg, United Kingdom 1.94 kg, Russia 1.38 kg, Morocco 1.21 kg, China 0.57 kg, India 0.32 kg. Tea is an agricultural product of the leaves, leaf-buds, and internodes of CAMELLIA SINESIS plant prepared and cured by various methods. It is believed that tea was accidentally discovered by Emperor Shen Nung of China in 2700 BC. Indian Legendaries tell that in the 5th year of a seven years sleepless contemplation of Lord Buddha, he began to feel drowsy. He immediately plucked a few leaves from a nearby bush and chewed them which dispelled his tiredness. This bush was a Wild-Tea Tree. By early 1900, tea cultivation started in most of the countries of the World. In India, it was Sepoy Mutinee Leader Maniram Dewan who planted the first Assamese tea exactly on 17 April, 1804. Let us explore the powers of this superfood…
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