Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
2016, Volume 32(2), December
EDITORIAL, O. S. Verma
KITCHEN GARDENING: A Countenance Study of Urban Inhabitants, Nazreen Hassan
Labour Shortage Effects on Stress Level of Employees in Oyo State Agricultural Development Program, Adeogun Stephen Oluseun
Income Generation Through Various Entrepreneurial Activities by Rural Women, Purva Dayya & Vishakha Bansal
Community Radio in Empowering Farm Women Through Mushroom Production, Binita Rani, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Barh, Patna, Bihar
Adoption of Potato Production Technologies By the Farmers in Relation to Their Socio-Economic Profiles, Debashis Mohapatra & A.P. Kanungo
Effects of Land Tenure on Adoption of Sawah Rice Production System in Nigeria, Cornelius Idowu Alarima, Adetayo Kazeen Aromolaran, Trugiyuki Masunaga, & Toshiyuki Wakatsuki
Farmers Willingness to 'Just and Equitable Land Expropriation in North-West Province of South Africa, Sekoto K.S, & Oladele O.I
INDOORS GARDENING: Cases Reviews, Om S. Verma
Worldwide, about 200 million couples are infertile. Almost 15 per cent of them require ART and IVF treatments. Couples who are unable to conceive even after years of trying could use procedure called Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) to get pregnant. These includes Intrauterine Insemination, In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Spern / Egg donation, and Gestational Carriers called “Surrogacy”. People join for Surrogacy when they want to have their genes in the child but cannot make it happen in natural course. There are two types of Surrogacy: (1) The man’s sperm and the woman’s ova is injected in the uterus of the surrogate mother who rents out her womb for the child, (2) If the Egg of the mother is not good enough to produce a baby, an Egg is then rented out by donor mother. A tripartite agreement is duly signed according to the terms and conditions prevalent at that time. This Editorial viewed Surrogacy Industry through the lens of intent, efficacy, and its purview.
Infertility has been recognized as a disease by World Health Organization. About 15 per cent of India’s population is infertile. Of these, 10 per cent need “Egg or Sperm Donation” and 1 per cent “Surrogacy”. Surrogacy is a practice whereby one woman bears and gives birth to a child for a couple with intention of handling over the child to the intending couple after the birth. There are two types surrogacy: Altruistic Surrogacy and Commercial Surrogacy. Altruistic Surrogacy is the practice in which no charges, expenses, fees, rent, remuneration, or monetary incentive of whatsoever nature are given to surrogate mother except her medical expenses and insurance coverage. Instead of strangers, egg and sperm donors are from within the family. Indians are comfortable with a family member coming to help as there are no issues of caste and religion. Besides, it does not contaminate the traditional “Family Gene”. Thus, surrogacy stays within the great family...
Dr. O. S. VERMA
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KITCHEN GARDENING: A Countenance Study of Urban Inhabitants
Growing awareness of organic farming has prompted city dwellers to move towards agriculture. Efforts are being made by the State horticulture department to promote kitchen gardening and terrace gardens for urban and semi urban residents. This pilot study examined the causals of people attracted towards kitchen garden and reasons for moving towards organic products. This Study also denotes the nature of information sources used by the Kitchen Gardeners in acquiring agriculture related information. It is seen that most of the Gardeners received information from private visual media.
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Labour Shortage Effects on Stress Level of Employees in Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (OYSADEP)
Adeogun Stephen Oluseun
Stress occurs when the demands placed on employees in an organization outweigh their technical, physical, educational and professional capabilities to meet such demands. If this goes unchecked, it can affect the health and job performance of employees and the overall objective of organziation may become unattainable. This study was conducted to assess the effects of labour shortage on stress level of employees in OYSADEP, Oyo State. Out of the four zones in Oyo State, two zones namely Ogbomosho and Ibadan/Ibarapa zones were randomly selected. The total population of employees in two zones was 74 which constituted the sample for the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and means while inferential statistics such as Chi-square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used to analyze the data. The result indicated that more than half (51.4%) of the employees were male, 85.1% were married with a mean age of 41 years. Most of the employees (91.9%) had tertiary education with 5 years and above years of experience. The results indicated the problem associated with labour shortage. Rewards of employees were low as compared to the risk of the job they were doing (M=3.35), the limited number of employees were being stressed due to labour shortage (M=3.01), and inadequate strength of staff was affecting the success of the organization (M=2.85). The result also reveals the stress level of employees. Stress effect on staff was affecting their work (M=2.80) and the nature of their job was such that they desired to quit if they had alternative (M=2.70). Chi-square analysis revealed that only working experience (X2=11.740, df=4, P < 0.05) had a significant relationship with employees’ stress level. There was also a significant correlation between employees’ perception of labour shortage and their stress level. The study concluded that due to the problem of labour shortage in OYSADEP the stress associated with the job was high as compared to the pay. It is therefore recommended that management of OYSADEP should employ more staff to reduce the stress on the existing employees of the organization.
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Income Generation through Various Entrepreneurial Activities by Rural Women
Purva Dayya & Vishakha Bansal
The study was conducted in Gogunda and Kherwara panchayat samities of Udaipur district of Rajasthan. From each panchayat samiti, two villages where the entrepreneurial activities were promoted by the NGOs during last five years were included in the study. The sample consisted of randomly selected 100 rural women. The study found that average net profit earned from vegetable production, flower cultivation, goat rearing and dairy enterprise was INR 15733, INR17,300, INR 28200 and INR 26100 respectively. In beauty parlour and stitching enterprise, average income was at INR20,524 and INR 14030 per year.
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Community Radio in Empowering Farm Women through Mushroom Production
Binita Rani, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Barh, Patna, Bihar
Barh community radio station was established in 2011 at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Barh, Patna to broadcast programmes on different issues of agriculture and allied sectors, health, hygiene and nutrition for three hours daily. Growing mushroom on agriculture by-products is a handy enterprise, low initial investment, self employment creating, supplementary income generating, and nutritious food giving to the family. On listening to the talks on Radio, farm women visited KVK to enquire about mushroom production and after going through training, 55 women started oyster mushroom production at their hut for their own consumption and selling the surplus in their villages. Among them, 35 farm women started producing on medium scale to earn money by selling the produce in the local market. A small group of 10 farm women started producing mushroom at commercial scale and consulted vegetable shops and even hotels in nearby city for regular supply. This turn resulted in their financial empowerment. The large scale production of mushroom earned more than 1.25 lakh per woman in one season. These results clearly indicate that there is an impact of radio in empowering farm women.
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Adoption of Potato Production Technologies by the Farmers in Relation to Their Socio-Economic Profiles
Debashis Mohapatra & Dr. A.P. Kanungo
A number of recommended production techniques and practices do not reach the farmers’ fields and those carried to the farmers get considerably distorted or often adopted partially resulting in poor yield. In this context, an attempt was made to study the extent of adoption of potato production technologies by the farmers in relation to their socio-economic profiles. The present study was conducted in Nimapada and Pipili blocks of Puri district of Odisha. Both purposive and random sampling techniques were followed in the study. A total number of 100 potato farmers were selected randomly as respondents. The study revealed that: age, membership of social organizations, extent of social contact, cosmopoliteness, media exposure, housing pattern and scientific aspirations of the respondent-farmers had higher consistency than their other socio-economic variables. The Potato farmers had highest adoption gap of 30.33 percent in case of use of proper potato varieties. Majority i.e. 68 percent of the respondents came under medium, followed by 23 percent low and 9 percent high adoption level categories. A good number of socio-economic variables such as: cosmopoliteness, media exposure, housing pattern, land holding size, occupation, farm power possession, annual income, and scientific aspirations had very significant impact on the adoption level of the farmers regarding various production related technologies of potato cultivation.
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Effect of Land Tenure on the Adoption of Sawah Rice Production System in Nigeria
Cornelius Idowu ALARIMA, Adetayo Kazeem AROMOLARAN, Tsugiyuki MASUNAGA & Toshiyuki WAKATSUKI
This study examined the effect of land tenure on the adoption of Sawah rice production system in Nigeria. Using pre-tested interview guides, data were collected from 124 randomly selected Sawah farmers. The results showed that rice farmers were predominantly male, married and had Quranic education, with the mean age of 42.30 years, farm sizes ranged from 0.03 to10 hectares (X = 0.5ha), the mean yield was 4.65 tonnes/ha, and the mean income was $1,041.38 ($1 = N145.00). The hierarchical regression analyses revealed that personal and farming characteristics of farmers accounted for a significant variance in the level of adoption of Sawah technology. Also security of land has significant influence on the level of adoption of Sawah technology among the farmers. This study revealed the importance of land tenure arrangement to Sawah adoption and therefore recommends for an urgent intervention to address land tenure related issues to enhance the prospects of green revolution in Nigeria.
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Farmers’ Willingness to Adopt ‘Just and Equitable’ Land Expropriation in North West Province, South Africa
Sekoto K. S & Oladele O I
This paper examines farmers’ willingness to adopt ‘just and equitable’ compensation principle for land expropriation. A large sampling size technique of n = 30 was used to select One hundred and seventy-six (176 commercial farmers) in the North West Province. The instrument used for data collection was a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The data were analyzed using frequencies, mean, percentages, and Probit Regression. The results showed that majority of commercial farmers had high school educational level, males, farm size ranging from 100 – 1000 hectares. The results of the probit model reveal that participation in organization (t = 1.718, p < 0.10), perception of policy (t = 3.596, p < 0.01), educational level (t = -4.772, p < 0.01), household head (t = -1.749, p < 0.10), farm size (t = 14.042, p < 0.01), income from maize (t = -2.611, p < 0.05), income from groundnuts (t = -1.668, p < 0.10), income from wheat (t = -1.749, p < 0.10), income from tobacco (t = -2.481, p < 0.05), friends / relatives (t = -2.243, p < 0.05), extension service (t = -3.552, p < 0.01), farmer organizations (t = -3.626, p < 0.01), Agricultural Research Council (t = 5.985, p < 0.01), income from broilers (t = 2.504, p < 0.05) and other mass media (t = -1.660, p < 0.10) showed a significantly positive relationship with farmers willingness to adopt ‘just and equitable’ compensation principle for land expropriation.
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INDOORS GARDENING: Cases Reviews
Dr. Om. S. Verma
Thanks to the space constraint, city homes can be docked with some live indoor plants and flowers. They add up not only to large amount of fresh oxygen but also absorbs Carbon Dioxide thus purifying the surrounding environment. Creepers like money plant enhanced the aura of the rooms. It is a myth that creepers damage the walls. In UK and China, people widely use Indian Ivy. It not only cools the building but also makes the building look so beautiful. Herbs like Tulsi busts the stress and its essential oils freshen up the mood. Different herbs like Italian Basic, Ajwain, Spearmint, Pudina, and Sri Lanka Palak are strong smelling plants that help in distracting insects and pests. Flowers like Roses enhance natural beauty and spread up fragrance to the house all around. Butterflies create a soothing havan as it attracts bees and birds. Bhindi, Corn, Chawli and flowering plants create a cross pollination. Fruits bring immense rewards both literal and emotional. Bonsai trees and shrubs make interiors beautiful and develop esthetical sharp appeal. Indoor gardening is also therapeutic as it is immensely relaxing. Plants heal the mind and the body. Little greenery in drawing room enables any one to feel like to be in the midst of forest or wilderness. Green rooftop is a panacea in this age of global warming. On a broader perspective, Gardening is thus brewing in urban households and has become a movement no longer restricted to hinterlands. Let us examine what others say.
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