Journal of Extension Systems

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2015, Volume 31(1), June

EDITORIAL, O. S. Verma

  1. Corporate social responsibility, O. S. Verma
  2. Role of knowledge and innovation systems in supporting farm's strategies in GI areas: A milieu innovateur approach, Marcello de Rosa, Luca Bartoli, Silvia Chiappini
  3. An exploratory study on technological interventions in poultry farming for sustainable rural livelihood management, Bineeta Satpathy
  4. Collaborative communication activities among farmers for agricultural innovation systems in North West Province, South Africa, Moagi T. M. & Oladele O. I.
  5. A glance of fishermen's cooperative societies of various countries around the globe, Suhas Wasave, Arpita Sharma, & Sangita Wasave
  6. Assessment of benefits of urban agriculture in Edo and Oyo States, Nigeria, Clara Obehi Edeoghon & Michael Tunde Ajayi
  7. Irish farmers' use of ICTs and their preferences for engagement with extension, Padraig Wims & Colman Byrne

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Editorial

SWACHH BHARAT ABIDYAN: Clean India Movement Toilets, Litterings, and Sanitation

Over 600 million people in India daily defecate in the open. It is not because these people do not want latrine at home but merely because they cannot afford to have it. A study has found that the most prevalent reason for not opting to have a toilet at home is exorbitant cost of an individual toilet. Fora family of six, it worked out at Rs.20,000/- or about Rs.l.80 per day per member for a period of 5 years. This amount is beyond their means. Government of India, therefore, has now come up with widespread construction of innovative user-friendly toilets called "Sopan Sandas" in rural areas to provide clean toilets to every citizen. Toilet for all, however, seems to be a crappy idea. Clean India Drive has left people flush with excitement but where is the water for these toilets and where the untreated sewage will go.

O. S. Verma
Chief Editor

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Corporate Social Responsibility, 1-12.

O. S. Verma
Email: jes_verma@yahoo.com

In India, Companies Act-2013 has called upon Corporate Houses having a net worth of Rs.500 crore or more, or a turnover of Rs.I000 crore or more, or a net profit ofRs.5 crore or more to have a CSR-spend of at least 2 per cent of their average net profits of the preceding three years. The Act has identified 12 Activities relevant for CSR-spend. The CSR beneficiaries are those who live in villages and towns. The CSR is an obligation of the companies to discharge their social, economical, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities to benefit the common people. Business owners, employees and their families, stakeholders, share holders, suppliers, and dealers are excluded from the purview of CSR beneficiaries. Although the CSR -agenda started with effect from 1st April, 2014, the compliance of2 per cent norm is hardly 13.50 per cent of 16000 and odd companies registered with the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. In order to see mandatory 2 per cent spend in CSR activities, some sort of regulatory authority is much sought after. Similarly, companies own subsidiary Foundations formed especially for implementing their CSR activities should be discouraged, rather dispensed with. Instead, Corporate Houses should come together and form a "National Consortium For CSR Interventions". Besides, at least 41 per cent of CSR budget should be allocated to NOOs for implementing their CSR activities.

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Role of knowledge and innovation systems in supporting farm's strategies in GI areas: A milieu innovateur approach, 13-34.

Marcello De Rosa, Luca Bartoll, & Silvia Chiappini
Email: mderosa@unicas.it

The paper deals with the support system of geographical indications (GIs): more precisely, it aims at investigating the territorial dynamics of the rural knowledge, by analysing the role of agricultural extension systems (AES) as tool to support farm's management and innovation in GI areas. By putting forward a milieu innovateur approach, we intend to verify eventual differences between GI and not GI farms in knowledge transfer and innovation adoption. Interaction and learning logics at the basis of this approach confirm differences even though with some exception based on territorial characteristics and models of AES governance.

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An exploratory study on technological interventions in poultry farming for sustainable rural livelihood management, 35-43.

Bineeta Satpathy
Email: shyambinee@hotmail.com

This paper summarizes the results of a study conducted to assess the status of rural livelihood management during 2012-2013 in Central Odisha and the reasons for household adoption of interventions for poultry production and technology transfer approach specifying attributes of innovations sampling 240 respondents from 4 villages. Significant difference was observed in quality chicks (z=3.0), scientific housing (z =5.0) and feed management (z=2.5). The correlation coefficient between socioeconomic condition and adoption of 1 interventions in poultry farming reveals t=3.72 indicating highly significant in rainfed situations. Multichannel information (t=6.54), pro-poor approach (t= 11.5), financing (t = 10.4) have significant influence on poultry fanners.

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Collaborative communication activities among farmers for agricultural innovation systems in Northwest Province, South Africa, 45-62.

Moagi T. M. & Oladele O. I.

This study conceptualized collaborative communication activities as activities which serve as communication interphase among different actors in the agricultural innovation system. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 50 farmers from which data were collected with structured and face validated questionnaire and analysed with SPSS version 21 by using frequency counts, percentages, and multiple regression analysis. The results show that prominent activities were joint problem identification (68%), joint field days (74%) and evaluation field visits (72%). Significant determinants of fanners' collaborative communication activities were age (t=-1.999, p<0.05) and knowledge of agricultural innovation systems (t=2.898, p<0.05).

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A glance of fishermen's cooperative societies of various countries around the globe, 63-76.

Suhas Wasave, Arpita Sharma, & Sangita Wasave
Email: suhaswasave@gmail.com

All over the world, fisheries is promising activity. More than three billion people depend directly or indirectly on fisheries. As the people's involvement in this sector was enormous, they need to serve efficiently and effectively. Keeping in mind, fishermen's come themselves together and established their own cooperative society to meet needs and to flourish the business activity. The main mandate of fishermen's cooperative society was to help their members in all business activities socially, economically and technologically. The main objective of this paper was to take review of fishermen's cooperative societies around the world. The review outcomes indicate that, cooperative societies with strong financial support succeed in the development of cooperative. Fish marketing has received priority among all activities, and societies involved in fish marketing activities were found flourished. Apart from marketing, the successful societies have engaged in other business activities like insurance, banking, supplies, exports, etc. Management of societies by state officials or persons without adequate knowledge and experience in fisheries has been a failure. Among the problems associated with fishermen's cooperative societies were fishing disputes, degree of honesty by the members, lack of capital, shortage of adequately trained and well motivated fisheries extension workers, etc.

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Assessment of benefits of urban agriculture in Edo and Oyo States, Nigeria, 77-90.

Clara Obehi Edeoghon & Michael Tunde Ajayi

The study assessed benefits of Urban Agriculture in Edo and Oyo states, Nigeria. Data were collected from 345 urban farmers in six cities using a structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Findings showed that respondents' perceived benefits were being able to eat balanced meals at all times from farm produce (x= 4.24), income from urban agriculture improved respondents' standard of living (x= 4.15) and ability to save money from urban agriculture (x= 4.08). Respondents' farming experience, farm size, cooperative membership and poultry enterprise had significant relationship with benefits from urban agriculture. Significant differences in benefits existed among the six cities.

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Irish farmers' use of ICTs and their preferences for engagement with extension, 91-102.

Padraig Wims & Colman Byrne
Email: P.Wims@ucd.ie

This research investigated the potential for extension organisations to use information and communications technologies (ICTs) in the provision of advice to farmers. A questionnaire was administered to 286 extension clients (fanners) in Ireland. It was found that 94% of respondents used computers, all used mobile phones and one third of these had Smartphones. Despite having access to ICTs, the majority did not use these to their potential. in relation to maintaining extension contact, farmers still prefer to use the traditional interpersonal communication methods when looking for specific and detailed advice on farming issues but they are content to use ICTs for more routine contact with extension.

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