Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
2014, Volume 30(1), June
EDITORIAL, Fabio M. SANTUCCI
Ideal Profile of the Contemporary Extensionist and its Relationship with the Qualities of the Millennial Generation, Hector Gabriel VARELA
Eurocentrism and Agriculture at a U.S. Land Grant University, Lauren ROUSE, Christopher BIELECKI, Anne MCGUCKEN, Gary WINGENBACH, Tracy RUTHERFORD, Orry PRATT, & Melanie BALINAS
Training Needs of Agricultural Extension Workers in Senegal, Robert AGUNGA, Amadou NDIAYE, & Chris O. IGODAN
Effectiveness of Agricultural Extension Workers in Delta State, Nigeria, Joseph U. AGBAMU & David O. EDONO
Impact of KVK Training Programmes on Knowledge and Adoption of Chickpea Production Innovations in Madhya Pradesh, India, L.K. MEENA, Lokesh SIROHIYA, S. KANT, S.L. BAIRWA & A. JHAJHARIA
Barriers to Success of Walnut Production Cooperatives in Iran, Mohammad ABDOLMALEKY
News, Views, and Reviews: Healthcare Consciousness with Vegetables, Om S. Verma
This issue of 2014 contains a selection of papers from and about three Continents. The international vocation of our Journal is once again reaffirmed.
JES provides the opportunity for an international exchange of experiences, knowledge and approaches, which is second to no other Journal. Its readership is scattered all over the world, with extension experts working within the Academia, the Ministries, several International agencies and many national and international Non Governmental Organizations.
As our selection procedures impose, all the papers I have received were first read by me, and then only the best ones went to two Governors and Reviewers, for their blind consideration. They all are international experts and University professors, whom I wish to gratefully thank again, because they have worked, pro-bono, for the improvement of the quality of the articles and consequently for the enhancement of agricultural extension worldwide.
Our Journal has not yet been recognized by ISI Thomson. Dr. Verma, the Chief Editor, applied two years ago and we have sent the last four issues to ISI Thomson, to be scrutinized by their Reviewers. This could then lead to the attribution of an Impact Factor to JES and this step could improve the attractiveness of JES for Authors within the Academia.
On the other hand, last April I was informed by Dr. Verna that the Indian National Academy of Agricultural Sciences for scientific assessment has awarded to JES the score of 3.58/5.00., meaning that our Journal belongs to the High Quality Group. This is an important step and hopefully will help also with ISI Thomson.
Coming to the contents, this first issue of the 30th Volume of JES contains articles from Argentina, USA, Senegal, Nigeria, Iran and India.
Prof. Fabio M. SANTUCCI
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Ideal Profile of the Contemporary Extensionist and its Relationship with the Qualities of the Millennial Generation
Hector Gabriel VARELA
This study is focused on the analysis of the professional qualities that characterize the so-called millennials or "Y" Generation and how they compare to the competencies demanded from extension agents according to the contemporary paradigm that is currently applied at the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) in Argentina. It is well documented that during the period of emergence of millennials, many of the factors that impact on personality development were totally opposed to those experienced by the previous generations, and have thus shaped their particular idiosyncrasy. Also, the qualities required to be a successful extensionist in the current paradigm have been clearly identified. The coexistence of diverse age groups within extension teams requires creating specific tools to achieve a better leverage of the various capacities, supplementing each other, profiting from the assets that characterize each generation and thus boosting their strengths. This essay is based on case studies and the author's work experience as well as on the analysis of publications about the topics at issue.
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Eurocentrism and Agriculture at a U.S. Land Grant University
Lauren ROUSE, Christopher BIELECKI, Anne MCGUCKEN, Gary WINGENBACH, Tracy RUTHERFORD, Orry PRATT, & Melanie BALINAS
Eurocentrism is the idea that European culture, beliefs, and practices are superior to other cultures' attributes; it may be manifested in American culture. The purpose of this study was to determine if selected U.S. students had Eurocentric attitudes about North American/European agriculture. A stratified random sample of college undergraduates completed an online questionnaire measuring their attitudes on 16 Eurocentric propositions regarding North American/European agriculture. Students had Eurocentric attitudes about agriculture, agreeing with 14 of the 16 Eurocentric propositions. Significant differences existed when analyzed by race and college. The U.S. agricultural industry, academia, and government want employees with workforce-ready intercultural skills.
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Training Needs of Agricultural Extension Workers in Senegal
Robert AGUNGA, Amadou NDIAYE, & Chris O. IGODAN
Agricultural extension in Senegal is critical to increasing agricultural production among the nation's smallholder farmers who make up 60 percent of the country's 14 million population. The paper argues that whereas the Government has recognized the importance of an integrated rural development approach to holistic development and urges extension workers to become development facilitators, it fails to recognize the importance of providing these agents with training in development and communication, otherwise known as "Communication for Development" (C41)). Therefore, the authors urge the government to introduce C41) training for extension workers as an innovative strategy for improving extension effectiveness in Senegal.
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Effectiveness of Agricultural Extension Workers in Delta State, Nigeria
Joseph U. AGBAMU & David O. EDONO
This study has assessed the effectiveness of agricultural extension workers through the use of six indicators. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 180 farmers and 60 extension workers from 12 Local Government Areas of Delta State. Interview schedule and questionnaire were used to collect data from respondents. On an average, farmers have 7 - 12 contacts per year with agricultural extension workers. Age, extent of contact with extension workers, and education level make a significant contribution to farmers' perception on the quality of agricultural extension workers. This study found no significant relationship between adoption level and extent of contact with extension workers. Agricultural message situation is good in terms of purpose, content and treatment but the provision of logistics for fieldwork of extension workers is not sufficient. The study reveals that agricultural extension service in Delta State is not effective. There is no significant difference in the agricultural extension workers' effectiveness in the three agricultural zones of Delta State. For a better coverage of extension cells, more extension workers should be recruited. The Delta State Government should exhibit renewed vigor in properly funding the public agricultural extension service to ensure improved effectiveness.
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Impact of KVK Training Programmes on Knowledge and Adoption of Chickpea Production Innovations in Madhya Pradesh, India
L.K. MEENA, Lokesh SIROHIYA, S. KANT, S.L. BAIRWA, & A. JHAJHARIA
Chickpea is an important pulse crop in India. Its production is stagnating and its variability is increased in the past three decades. The present study is an attempt to examine the impact of KVK Training programmes on knowledge and adoption of Chickpea production technology among participating and non- participating farmers of Sihora block of Jabalpur District Madhya Pradesh, The mean knowledge scores of participating and non-participating respondents about chickpea practices were 23.53 and 16.03 indicating that through training imparted by the KVK, the participating farmers have shown better results over nonparticipating respondents. Comparatively, higher percentages of non- participating respondents were observed in medium and low level of adoption. Overall mean adoption score indicates that farmers have not fully adopted the recommended practices of chickpea crop. Difference in extent of adoption between participating and non- participating farmers was highly significant.
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Barriers to Success of Walnut Production Cooperatives in Iran
This study was conducted to seek the opinion of walnut producers on the barriers affecting the success of producers to found production cooperatives regarding garden products in Tuyserkan township, Iran. 234 walnut producers were randomly selected through multistage cluster sampling technique. This study is a kind of descriptive-correlation research which has been accomplished through questionnaire. For determining the validity of questionnaire, the face and content validity were used. Reliability for the instrument was estimated at 0.94. According to factor analysis, barriers to establish and develop walnut production cooperatives were categorized into seven groups whose factors explained 65.799% of the total variance. The results also indicated that lack of cultural infrastructures, inadequate knowledge and improper opinions of producers and leaders, improper laws and low risk taking and infrastructural barriers had the most effect to found and develop walnut production cooperatives, respectively.
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News, Views, and Reviews: Healthcare Consciousness with Vegetables
Dr. Om. S. Verma
This is 9th instalment in the series of Articles on Healthcare Consciousness. Want a long life, eat fruits and veggies. Being a reservoir of antioxidants, fresh fruits and vegetables boost immunity, prevent nutritional deficiencies like anemia, and maintain good hairs and skin. Research shows diets containing substantial amount of varied vegetables reduce chances of cancer by 20 percent, stroke by 32 percent, cardiovascular disease by 60 percent, and the risk of death by up to 42 percent. It also prevents miscarriages. Therefore, be healthy, wealthy, and wise to eat at least 200 grams of fresh vegetables every day. Following is the list of 28 vegetables which can take care of your most common problems.
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