Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the
2012, Volume 28(1), June
Editorial: Joy of Charity in Giving, Om S. Verma, Chief Editor
Knowledge Generation and Sharing for Organic Agriculture in Costa Rica, Mario Acunzo & Fabio Maria Santucci
Facilitation and Brokerage New Roles for Extension, Alex Koutsouris
Expanding and Transforming Agricultural Education and Training, William M. Rivera
Adoption of Yam Minisett Technology in Delta State of Nigeria, Ajieh Patrick Chuks
Impact of Agricultural Extension Services on Sustainable Agriculture in Italy, Marcello De Rosa, Luca Bartoli, & Giuseppe La Rocca
Attitude of the Farmers towards Different Farm TV Programs, Banarsi Lal
Constraints Perceived in Commercial Cultivation of Temperate Vegetables, R. S. Suman
News, Views, and Reviews: Healthcare Consciousness with Fish and Fish Products, Om S. Verma
Knowledge Generation and Sharing for Organic Agriculture in Costa Rica; 1-17.
Communication for Development Officer
Research and Extension Branch- Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension
Food and Agriculture Organization - FAO
Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Roma, Italy
Prof. Fabio Maria Santucci
c/o DSEEA, Sezione di Scienze Economiche ed Estimative
Facoltà di Agraria
Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, ITALIA
The research investigates the knowledge generation and sharing for organic farming experienced in Costa Rica, and the willingness to pay for advice by organic small holders. A desk study was followed by structured interviews to all 87 organic farmers active in three areas. The outcome has been validated with local stakeholders. Organic agriculture is based on a combination of knowledge, partly generated and transmitted informally by its practitioners, while more technical knowledge is generated and shared by a variety of institutions. Organic producers attribute great value to knowledge shared among farmers; but would like to access more technical and market information, and think their organic associations could facilitate it. Most respondents declare a willingness to pay to receive advice, but the only independent variable affecting this attitude is younger age.
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Facilitation and Brokerage: New Roles for Extension; 18-27.
Alex Koutsouris, Associate Prof.
Dept of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development
Agricultural University of Athens
75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
The purpose of this piece of work is to investigate, through a literature review, the role of ‘intermediaries’ in agricultural/rural extension. Two main types of intermediaries, facilitators and brokers, are dealt with through an account of their emergence in agricultural literature. This review points to the fact that intermediaries, as co-learning facilitators, signify rather new roles requiring specific and largely unexplored skills. Given that, in addition, there is a number of issues threatening the efficacy of ‘intermediaries’ it is argued that there is an urgent need for facilitation and brokerage to be better described, operationally defined and well-evaluated so as to allow for both a better interpretation and guidance of practice. This further implies that agricultural universities ought to expose future professionals to intermediation concepts, skills and tools.
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Expanding and Transforming Agricultural Education and Training: Next Steps; 28-44.
William M. Rivera (professor, retired)
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20740, USA
This paper is organized into four sections. The sections contain interrelated AET proposals for developing policies and strategies to advance agricultural education and training (AET). The proposals draw on the literature reviewed in a separate AET paper (Weidemann/Rivera, 2010) although emphasis in some cases expresses the present writer’s findings and ideas from study and field experience regarding AET in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The four proposals cover (1) the relationship of the university (and other AET institutions) to agriculture, (2) the importance of developing practical business and rural development courses/programs in the agricultural curriculum, (3) the implications of an expanded curricula for greater AET linkages in and beyond the AET complex of systems, and (4) suggestions as to what would constitute an expanded AET system. The conclusion underscores the importance of government commitment to proactive policy mandates AET and funding of reform and advancement of AET.
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Adoption of Yam Minisett Technology in Delta State, Nigeria; 45-57.
Ajieh, Patrick Chuks
Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension
Delta Stata University, Asaba Campus, Asaba, Nigeria
Yam Minisett technology provides seed yams rapidly. It is designed to alleviate the problem of seed yams scarcity, which has been identified as a major constraint to increased yam production. This study examined the adoption of the technology by farmers in Delta State, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed in the selection of respondents. A sample size of 240 yam farmers participated in the study. Data was collected through the use of structured interview schedule. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing data generated by the study. Results of the study reveal that respondents had moderate awareness of yam Minisett technology with an overall awareness percentage of 46%. The study also found an overall mean adoption score of 2.24, which indicates a general low adoption of the technology with an overall awareness percentage of 46%. The study also found an overall mean adoption score of 2.24, which indicates a general low adoption of the technology by the farmers. Application of Minisett dust with adoption score of 2.05 was the least adopted yam Minisett technology item, while cutting into Minisett was the most adopted with adoption score of 2.79. The study found a significant relationship between some fanners’ socioeconomic characteristic and adoption of yam Minisett.
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Impact of Agricultural Extension Services on Sustainable Agriculture in Italy; 58-80.
Marcello De Rosa, Luca Bartoli, & Giuseppe La Rocca
University of Cassino
Department of Economics and Law
The European Common Agricultural Policy has recently introduced cross compliance as a compulsory condition for farms. A set of criteria has been established, aimed at reducing the environmental impact of farming. The growing role of agricultural extension services has been predicted to result in high percentages of farmers introducing these criteria. Is this sufficient? The aim of our paper is to apply the AKAP model to the introduction of cross compliance on Italian farms. Our hypothesis is that the awareness of the cross compliance does not necessarily imply the adoption of coherent measures aimed at introducing it as part the farms’ compulsory criteria.
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Attitude of the Farmers towards Different Farm T.V. Programmes; 81-85.
Banarsi Lal, Asst. Prof./SMS
Extension Education, KVK
Reasi (Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology - Jammu)
In India where the rural masses are isolated in villages, the communication is difficult and challenging. In this situation, television is one of the most important sources of mass media which plays a pivotal role in reaching large numbers of people in no time. The study was conducted in Kathu district of Jammu and Kashmir. The attitude of 120 respondents towards farm T.V. programmes was studied by using the attitude scale and it was found that 15.00 percent of farmers were having highly favourable attitude, 68.33 percent favourable attitude, and 16.67 percent unfavourable attitude toward farm T.V. programmes.
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Constraints Perceived in Commercial Cultivation of Temperate Vegetables; 86-89.
R. S. Suman
IARI Regional Station
Katrain (Kullu Valley) H.P. – 175129
This study was carried out in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh to identify the constraints in commercial cultivation of temperate vegetables. Among the production constraints, non-availability of recommended technologies ranked first followed by ‘labour shortage as per needs.’ Without the availability technologies, the production of vegetables did not increase and without this so many problems occurred in vegetable production. In the economic constraints, ‘Proper price of the crops’ was major constraint followed by ‘Proper transportation facilities.’ Other constraints ‘proper markets for selling the crops, shortage of money for vegetable production, and Interference of the middlemen in the marketing.
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News, Views, and Reviews: Healthcare Consciousness with Fish & Fish Products; 90-114.
Dr. Om. S. Verma
This is the fifth installment in the series of Articles on Healthcare Consciousness. Fish is increasingly becoming popular mainly because people are averse to red-meat. Fish is low in fat and high in protein. It is an excellent source of Omega-3 fatty acids, unsaturated fats good for us. Hence, not every generation of fish eaters is creating more fish eaters, people from non-fish eating cultures are also turning to fish as a benign source of all sorts of healthy stuff. Healthcare Consciousness with Fish & Fish Products has thus become imminent. Some health-mantras are talked about in this article.
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