Journal of Extension Systems

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2011, Volume 27(1), June

O. S. Verma, Editorial

  1. Implementing an Extension Agroforestry Systems Program to Replace Low Productivity Crops on Hillsides in Honduras, Don Breazeale
  2. Predictors of Employees’ Perception of Innovation in organization Performance: The case of Natural Resources Conservation Services (NRCS), Terrence Thomas, Cihat Gunden, & Tongzhe Li
  3. Comparative Analysis of Extension Activities of Governmental (OGADEP) and Non-Governmental (DADP) Agencies on Maize/Cassava Production in Remo Area of Ogun State in Nigeria Adeyanju Agbelemoge
  4. Role of Extension in Technology Adoption among Rice Farmers in Ayamelum Local Government Area of Anambra State in Nigeria, Nenna M. G.
  5. Factors Affecting Dairy Farming Technology Adoption: A Case in Ardabil Province of Iran, Asghar Bagheri
  6. Constraints Analysis of Factors Affecting Application of Organic Farming Practices by Small Farmers in Iran, Rezvanfar, A., Samiee, M. Akbani, & A. Olhan
  7. News, Views, and Reviews: You can use, Om S. Verma

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Mobile Phones, Alert

International Agency For Research on Cancer, an arm of World Health Organization, has recently warned people that excessive use of mobile phone may trigger Brain Cancer. They have classified mobile phone’s radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) as group 2 B Agent which is Carcinogenic to humans. Similar risk posed by EMR is from home appliances that we daily use. Wi-fi and microwaves are reported to have caused deafness and memory loss. Radiation around Chernobyl Plant causes a jump in Thyroid cancer and leukemia. The EMR is measured in Milligauss. The glimpses of table 1 gives us an idea of what happens when we are subjected to various levels of Radiation Exposure (REM).

Dr. O. S. Verma
Chief Editor

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Implementing an Extension Agroforestry Systems Program to Replace Low Productivity Crops on Hillsides in Honduras , 1-8.

Don Breazeale
Director of Research, Honduran Agricultural Research Foundation (FHIA)
Apartado Postal 2067, San Pedro Sula, Cortes, Honduras
E-mail: breazealedonald@gmail.com

This paper describes the methodology followed by the Honduran Agricultural Research Foundation (FHIA) when implementing an income generating project that improved the quality of life of 445 poor, rural producers (including 95 women) of the hillside and piedmont areas of the Honduran north coast and at the same time protected and maintained the natural resource base of the area. As a result of these programming efforts, a total of 2,450 rural family members now have increased their yearly incomes from an average of $400/hectare to approximately US $2,500 per hectare utilizing perennial crops alone. These new plantings in most cases only took up about one-half of the land area for a family; therefore, they still had ample room to produce their own basic commodities for home consumption. Important lessons learned are also described so that other organizations might be able to replicate these positive results.

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Predictors of Employees’ Perception of Innovation in Organization Performance: The Case of the Natural Resources Conservation Services (NRCS), 9-21.

Terrence Thomas, Cihat Gunden, & Tongzhe Li
North Carolina A&T State University
1601 East Market Street, Greensboro NC 27411
E-mail: twthomas@neat.edu

In this paper, we investigate the role of organizational climate factors (work environment) that affect Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) employees’ perception of the level of innovative activity following the reorganization of the agency. It is assumed that an employee that perceives that innovation is valued and it plays an important role in the overall performance of the organization is likely to believe that they will be rewarded for innovative behavior, and as a result, will be more likely to direct their effort at becoming more innovative. In this study, data from a random sample of 643 NRCS employees suggest that the NRCS is likely to achieve the greatest gain in employee innovative behavior from improving the level of training and the level of employee involvement in organizational change, and moderate gains from improving team work, communication and leadership.

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Comparative Analysis of Extension Activities of Governmental (OGADEP) and Non-Governmental (DADP) Agencies on Maize/Cassava Production in Remo Area of Ogun State, Nigeria, 22-29.

Adeyanju Agbelemoge
College of Agricultural Sciences
Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria
E-mail: adeyanjuagbelemoge@yahoo.com

This study compared the activities of two agricultural extension agencies of Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme (OGADEP) and Dioecean Agricultural Development Programme (DADP) on maize and cassava producers in Remo North Local Government Area of Ogun State. Purposive sampling method of was used to elicit information from 30 OGADEP and 30 DADP registered maize and cassava farmers in the study area. Primary data were collected with the use of a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics tools like the frequency counts and percentage were used to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents while Chi-square analysis was used to test the hypotheses set. The study revealed that the age of farmers working with the two agencies ranges between 30-60 years, it also showed that majority of both OGADEP and DADP farmers are males and were married. Most of the respondents had adopted modern techniques disseminate to them. There was no significant difference in the socio-economic variables of the farmers and in methods of contact of the agencies. The result showed that there were significant differences in the level of interaction between the agents of OGADEP and the agents of DADP.

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The role of Extension in Technology Adoption Among Rice Farmers in Ayamelum Local Government Area of AnambraState, Nigeria, 30-43.

Nenna M. G.
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension
Anambra State University, Igbariam Campus
E-mail: dikenenna@yahoo.com

The study examined the role of extension in technology adoption among rice farmers in Ayamelum Local Government Area of Anambra state, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were used to elicit vital information for the study from a randomly selected sample of 120 respondents. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and liker-type scale methods. The results revealed that majority (43.33%) of the respondents had contact with extension agents once a month, and that only 26.67% of the respondents learnt of improved rice production technologies through extension agents while the majority (73.33%), learnt of it from other related rice issues, indicating a gap in extension service delivery which called for intensified efforts of extension agents. The results further revealed that farm and family visits (x=4.67) and face to face contacts (x=4.50) were the most appropriate methods used in educating the farmers on improved rice production technologies. The findings showed that yield increasing technologies viz: tractor (100%), improved rice varieties (96%), herbicides (80%), fertilizer (92%), and insecticides/pesticides (74%) had high considerable scores on adoption level process. The result indicated that the socio-economic benefits of the adoption process had increased farm income and yield, encouraged children’s education, created improvements in family health conditions and served as source of firewood. The results identified lack of capital, high cost of farm inputs, pests and diseases, land tenure system and poor extension system as the major obstacles militating against adoption of improved rice production technologies in the area. It was concluded that yield increasing technologies should be highly subsidized to enable rice farmers meet up with the farming demands of rice production.

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Factors Affecting Dairy Farming Technology Adoption: A Case in Ardabil Province-Iran, 44-53.

Asghar Bagheri
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran
E-mail: bagheri_a2001@yahoo.com

The objective of this study was to examine factors affecting adoption of dairy farming related technologies. The study is based on data from a sample of 95 dairy cattle farmers from selected townships of Ardabil province. A group comprising 14 technologies was examined. Compare means and regression methods were sued to analyze data. Results revealed that most of the technologies have typically been adopted and were in use for a number of years but intensity and duration of adoption was confined to a limited number of technologies. So that, more than 60% of the respondents did not adopt 8 of 14 technologies and only 4 of 14 technologies were in use more than 10 years. Based on the results, farmers with higher levels of education and who participated in extension programs significantly adopted more technologies than other farmers in the sample. Regression analysis showed dairy cattle, size, usefulness of sources of information, rain fed farm size, diversification in large farm animal husbandry and agro-pasture farm size were found to have positive significant effects, but sheep and goat herd size negatively affected on adoption. The R^2 value of .772 indicated the power of the model for predicting and revealed that 77.2 percent of variance in technology adoption was explained by variables entered in the model.

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Constraints Analysis of Factors Affecting Application of Organic Farming Practices by Small Farmers in Iran, 54-61.

Rezvanfar, A. & Samiee, M. Akbari
Department of Agricultural Extension and Education
Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University of Tehran
E-mail: arezvan@ut.ae.ir

A. Olhan
Department of Agricultural Economics
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Ankara, Turkey

Different barriers might affect the application of organic farming practices among farmers. A broad range of barriers which may affect application of organic farming are included, such as limited access to credit and financing, difficulties accessing organic inputs, lack of stable markets for organic crops, no access to transportation appropriate for organic production, lack of well defined standards for organic production, etc. This study hopefully captures the state of research with respect to the analysis of different factors affecting application of organic farming among small farmers in Iran. The study was carried out in Ravansar County, Kermanshah Province of Iran. The data for the research were obtained from 51 organic farmers who applied organic practices in their agricultural production. Through designed instruments, respondents rated multiple statements about the constraints that may affect their application of organic farming practices. i.e. limited access to credit and financing, difficulties accessing organic inputs, lack of stable markets for organic crops, no access to transportation appropriate for organic production, etc. Factor analysis results revealed that 75.39 per cent of the total variance was explained by the factors i.e. transportation and marketing; production, accessibility of input, support and attitude that included in the factor matrix. The findings suggest that from the farmer’s view point, limited access to credit and financing, difficulties accessing organic inputs, lack of stable markets for organic crops, no access to transportation appropriate for organic production, lack of well defined standards for organic production are the main constraints to application of organic farming practices in their farms.

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NEWS, VIEWS AND REVIEWS: YOU CAN USE, 62-84.

O.S. Verma

This is the third installment in the series of Articles on Healthcare. Five topical items of Healthcare have already been published in Vol-26 (2010). These are: Alcoholic Drinks, Coffee, Cancer, Eggs, and Smoking. Three more topics of healthcare are delineated in this Article. These are: Water, Energy Drink, Milk. However, before we present the health remedies owing to these three topics, let us see what are the current research notes that are received on 5 topics published earlier in Vol-26(2010).

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