Journal of Extension Systems

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2009, Volume 25, Silver Jubilee

  1. Developing a One Stop Shop Approach to Extension Planning, Reporting, Accountability and Personnel Management , John G. Richardson
  2. Agricultural Extension: Reflection and Future Prospects, James Phelan
  3. Farmer Evaluation of Soil Fertility and Food Availabilityin the Dryland Makueni District of Eastern Kenya, J.M. Kimiti
  4. Consumers’ Concerns When Purchasing Fresh Vegetables in Trinidad, West Indies. Implications for Extension Programs, Neela Badrie, Wayne Ganpat, & Natalie Cudjoe
  5. Organic Farming Adoption and Household Food Security of the Smallholders: A Case Study from Bangladesh, Md. Asaduzzaman Sarkar & Yoshihito Itohara
  6. Effects of Extension Services of Firms offering Contarct Farming: A Case Study of Small Scale Maize Farmers in Limpoto Province South Africa, F.D.K. Anim
  7. What Drives Poor Farmers’ Financial Participation in Agricultural Research and Extension in Benin?, Ir. Ismail M. Moumouni
  8. Knowledge and Utilisation of Job Enrichment Techniques Among Extension Managers in South Western Nigeria, A.O. Akinsorotan, O.I. Oladele, & A.A. Ajadi
  9. Assessment of Producer Organizations as a Strategy for Enhancing Livestock Extension in Enugu State, Nigeria , Nicholas Ozor, R.I. Ogbuisi, & E.M. Igbokwe
  10. Participatory Rural Appraisal as a Teaching Method to improve the Lives of Pastoralists-Women in Northern Nigeria, S.A Aderinoye-Abdulwahab, B.F. Umar, I. Ogunlade, & A.T. Dolapo
  11. Is Technical Content in Extension Advisory Work Still Relevant?, Terrence Thomas, Cihat Gunden, & Murat Boyaci
  12. Learning from Past Agricultural Extension Approaches, William Rivera & Gary E. Alex
  13. Effective Factors on Farmers' Attributional Style, Arman Bakshi Jahromi & Gholam Hossein Zamani
  14. Information Needs of Cassava farmers in Delta State of Nigeria, F.E. Omoregbee & T.O.A. Banmeke

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Developing a One Stop Shop Approach to Extension Planning, Reporting, Accountability and Personnel Management; 1-7.

Dr. John G. Richardson
Department of Agricultural and Extension Education
N.C. State University
Raleigh, NC 27695 USA
john_richardson@ncsu.edu

This paper explains and reflects on the use of newer technologies for integrating an extension program planning, personnel and accountability system into a single integrated One Stop Shop system. A description is given about the planning and development of an integrated program planning and reporting system in the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service (NCCES), and its progression to an operational One Stop Shop computer based functioning system. Program development principles and their implementation are discussed, as well as precautionary thoughts about the complexities of such systems and the potential for their longevity due to their complexity in design, requirements for implementation and requirements for continuous maintenance and support. The actual design and parameters of the NCCES integrated system is presented.

Keywords: Technologies, Accountability, Extension, One-Stop Shop

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Agricultural Extension: Reflection and Future Prospects; 2-23.

Professor James Phelan
School of Agriculture
Food Science and Veterinary Medicine
UCD, Dublin, Ireland
james.phelan@ucd.ie

This paper presents a reflection on agricultural extension, outlining the origins of extension and how it has changed over time. It details the development of different approaches to extension as extension systems have evolved across the world. The paper contrasts three current approaches to extension, which combine different combinations of the public private mix. Universities play a critical role in extension systems and the paper highlights a disconnect with community that is developing in many university systems. Finally it outlines the challenges facing extension over the next decade. How it positions itself with regard to these challenges will have a very big influence on its advancement or decline.

Keywords: Agricultural extension, education, extension Linkage, research

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Farmer Evaluation of Soil Fertility and Food Availabilityin the Dryland Makueni District of Eastern Kenya; 25-32.

J. M. Kimiti
Kenya Forestry Research Institute
P.O Box 20412-00200
Nairobi, Kenya
jmkimiti@yahoo.com

Crop yields in the drylands of eastern Kenya are low due to low and erratic rainfall and soil nutrient depletion. Therefore farmer participation meetings were held in four sub-locations of Makueni district. The objective of the meetings was to establish whether farmers in eastern Kenya drylands recognized low soil fertility as a problem in crop production. Results from the meetings revealed that farmers recognized soil fertility as a problem in crop production and classified soils in the study sites as of low fertility status. It was also revealed that food deficit persisted for about eight months in a year. These findings indicated that the farmers were aware of low soil fertility and high food insecurity existed in the study sites.

Keywords: Drylands, farmer participation, nutrient depletion and soil fertility

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Consumers’ Concerns When Purchasing Fresh Vegetables in Trinidad, West Indies. Implications for Extension Programs; 33-43.

Neela Badrie1, Wayne Ganpat2, and Natalie Cudjoe1
1 Department of Food Production, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago
2 Extension Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, Trinidad and Tobago
waygan@flowtrinidad.net (corresponding author)

Some 130 persons in the Central region of Trinidad were surveyed using systematic random sampling to determine their concerns related to the production and purchasing of fresh vegetables. The study found that there were fairly high levels of concern about pesticide residues, GMO’s and the quality of irrigation water used in vegetable production. Advertisement was the most important factor influencing purchasing decisions. There were some differences based on gender on the quality attributes of the products when purchasing (appearance, cleanliness, firmness) and on factors influencing their purchasing decisions (health benefits and flavor). Most respondents were willing to pay more for vegetables produced with a minimum or no pesticides. Secondary data showed a low quantity of extension programs dealing with pesticide management and Good Agricultural Practices and recommendations included the need to increase greatly programming efforts especially those programs that use the Agro-ecosystem analysis (AESA) component of Farmer Field Schools (FFS).

Keywords: Vegetables, consumers, pesticides, extension programs

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Organic Farming Adoption and Household Food Security of the Smallholders: A Case Study from Bangladesh; 45-53.

Md. Asaduzzaman Sarkar1 and Yoshihito Itohara2
1 Doctoral Student, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Japan
milton_suma@yahoo.com

2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture Yamaguchi University
gbb_50@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

Smallholders are always vulnerable to food insecurity. According to many scientists, when smallholders will adopt organic farming as a means of livelihood then their chance of attaining household food security might be more risky due to relatively lower yield performance of organic farming. On the contrary, many scientists and researchers recommend organic farming for the smallholders due to its cost effectiveness and better performance for supplying safe food for the household members. Thus, to resolve this debate whether organic farming hampers or helps in attaining household food security the current study was conducted among the smallholders organic farming adopters of Tangail district in Bangladesh. Empirical data for the study were collected from 150 smallholder organic farmers by means of personal interviewing. The results of the study showed that among the respondent farmers 98% had attained household level food security. While, those who failed to attain household food security, had started organic farming within the last 4 years. Thus, the duration of organic farming was found as a very significant factor with household food security of the smallholders. The study also explored that education of the household head, farm size, household members, number of cattle and access to extension services are also significant for attaining household food security through adoption of organic farming.

Keywords: Household food security, smallholders, organic farming, adoption, Bangladesh

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Effects of Extension Services of Firms offering Contarct Farming: A Case Study of Small Scale Maize Farmers in Limpoto Province South Africa; 55-60.

F. D. K. Anim
University of South Africa (UNISA)
Dept of Agriculture, Animal Health & Human Ecology
College of Agric & Environmental Sciences
Animfdk@unisa.ac.za

A probit regression model was employed in this study to investigate the effect of private extension services on contract farming participation by small scale maize farmers in rural areas of the Limpopo province of South Africa. The study suggests that participation in contract farming is influenced by the quality of extension services provided, follow-up visits and technology adoption. Stock of farm input supply and frequency of extension visits appear to have negative influence. The study recommends follow-up visits coupled with quality extension services by extension agents after the introduction and adoption of new technology to farmers.

Keywords: Contract farming, private extension, extension policy

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What Drives Poor Farmers’ Financial Participation in Agricultural Research and Extension in Benin? ; 61-76.

Dr. Ir. Ismail M. Moumouni
Factulty of Agriculture
University of Parakou
BP: 123 Parakou, Benin
mmismailfr@yahoo.fr

Although the idea of African farmers’ financial participation in development projects is generally received with scepticism and caution, we reported about farmers contributing to finance agricultural services in Benin. This paper uses an inductive research approach to analyze the dynamic of farmers’ motives for financing agricultural research and extension. A farmer’s socio-economic aspirations influenced his motivation to finance agricultural research and extension. These aspirations defined farmers’ pre-dispositional pattern of motivation which was determined by the existence, the combination and the precedence of specific needs (need for social prestige and need for knowledge) and expectations (expectation of material catchments and expectation of meeting farming goals). Contrary to the needs for social prestige and expectations of material catchments, high needs for knowledge and high expectations of meeting farming goals might be predispositions to sustainable motivation for financing agricultural research and extension. This conceptualization demonstrated that the motives why farmers finance ARE went beyond agricultural concerns and provides background for designing motivation strategies.

Keywords: Agricultural research and extension, Benin, financing, motivation, rural sociology

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Knowledge and Utilisation of Job Enrichment Techniques Among Extension Managers in South Western Nigeria; 77-89.

A. O. Akinsorotan1, O. I. Oladele2, and A. A. Ajadi1
1 Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2 Department of Agricultural Economics, Education and Extension, Botswana College of Agriculture, University of Botswana, Gaborone
oladele20002001@yahoo.com

This study determined knowledge and utilization of job enrichment techniques among extension managers in South Western Nigeria. Simple random sampling method was used to select five out of the eight states in south western agricultural zone and 48 managers from 52 in the selected five states. Data using a structured questionnaire and subjected to frequency counts, percentages, One- way analysis of variance and multiple regression. The results showed that majority of the managers are married (94%), males (81%), with about 39% having at least BSc as educational qualification. About 92% of the respondents indicated the use of workshops, management training (90%) and colleagues (90%). Extension managers are more knowledgeable on techniques such as implementing participative management (96%), increasing direct feedback (96%) and rotating assignments among subordinates (94%). The most used job enrichment techniques by extension managers are: increased use of initiatives (98%), increasing the amount of job recognition for job well done (96%) and involvement of subordinates in identification and solution of problems (96%). Significant determinants of utilization of job enrichment number of information sources (t = 2.79), and Job tenure (t = 2.89). One way analysis of variance result shows that a significant difference exits in the number of constraints reported by extension managers across the states (F = 8.72, p < 0.05); with managers from Lagos state had the highest mean (9.40 ) while Ogun had the lowest (2.10).

Keywords: Job enrichment, extension managers, knowledge

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Assessment of Producer Organizations as a Strategy for Enhancing Livestock Extension in Enugu State, Nigeria; 91-104.

Nicholas Ozor, R. I. Ogbuisi, and E. M. Igbokwe
Department of Agricultural Extension
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Enugu State, Nigeria
sunny_ozor@yahoo.com

The study assessed the use of producer organizations (POs) as a strategy for enhancing livestock extension in Enugu State, Nigeria. It specifically characterized the POs, assessed their performance and ascertained their level of adoption of improved husbandry practices. Twenty-four POs constituted the sample. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Major findings revealed that all the POs evolved traditionally with no external influence. The POs had favourable local support because they gave loans to members (25%) and accommodated non-members in some of their activities (25%). Most (50%) of the POs were comprised of women only. The poultry enterprise constituted the majority (1192) and was the most profitable with a net income of N71,600. The highest adoption rates were on early weaning, provision of drinking water, pen sanitation, and feeding with bye-products. The study concluded with a recommendation that POs should be encouraged by all tiers of government, NGOs, private sectors, and the international agencies with supports such as favourable policies, credits, inputs, and training opportunities.

Keywords: Producer organizations, livestock extension, food security, Enugu State

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Participatory Rural Appraisal as a Teaching Method to improve the Lives of Pastoralists-Women in Northern Nigeria; 105-112.

S. A. Aderinoye-Abdulwahab
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, PMB 1515, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
sidiay@yahoo.com

B. F. Umar
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto, Nigeria
bfumar@yahoo.com

I. Ogunlade
Department of Agricultural Extension, PMB 1515, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
iogunlade@yahoo.com

T. A. Dolapo
Kwara State Agricultural Development Programme, Ilorin, Nigeria

The educational system of nations serves as the engine room for development. Agricultural developments are hinged on researches with education as the backbone. The importance of farmer education therefore cannot be overemphasized. In sub-Saharan Africa, majority of farmers are illiterate. It is essential therefore for agricultural educators to adopt non-academic but educating methods to develop farmers. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is an educating methodology that places less emphasis on academics. This paper discusses how to educate pastoralists through their wives using PRA. The paper recommends that PRA should be used to evaluate and solve pastoralists' activities and problems.

Keywords: Education, pastoralists, participatory rural appraisal, Northern Nigeria and women

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Is Technical Content in Extension Advisory Work Still Relevant?; 113-120.

Terrence Thomas
North Carolina A&T State University
twthomas@ncat.edu

Cihat Gunden and Murat Boyaci
Erdogan Oktay Ege University

Initially, farming systems relied heavily on technical innovations in production technologies as the primary means for increasing production and reducing costs. Consequently, the core function of extension was to provide advice on adopting technical innovations in production technologies. As the farming system evolved, other facets of the system such as farm management, home economics, youth, marketing, rural development, and the environment became relevant content in Extension work. With the emergence of these other knowledge areas and their perceived relevance to the farming system, the question that is now being asked is: “Is technical content (content related to production technologies) still relevant?” In this paper we argue that farming is a system in which many content areas are relevant. We further argue that all relevant content areas should be considered technical content. The paper draws on a case study of cotton farmers from the Aegean region to support our arguments.

Keywords: Farming systems, extension, production technology

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Learning from Past Agricultural Extension Approaches; 121-127.

William Rivera, Professor
University of Maryland
wr@umd.edu

Gary E. Alex, Consultant
U.S. Agency for International Development

This paper reviews a number of past agricultural development tools that for different reasons have dropped from the development agenda. It begins with the current inattention to the AKIS/RD agricultural knowledge and information system in favor of the AIS agricultural innovation system. It then reviews three extension systems currently ignored or neglected: the Training and Visit management system (T&V), the Communication for Technology Transfer in Agriculture (CTTA), and the Strategic Extension Campaign (SEC). The paper argues that new approaches must build on past experience rather than reject these in toto and jump to new models that can become fads.

Keywords: AKIS, agricultural innovation, extension systems

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Effective Factors on Farmers' Attributional Style; 129-138.

Arman Bakhshi Jahromi
Department of Socio-Economics
Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre
Kerman, Islamic Republic of Iran
armanbhakhshi@yahoo.com

Gholam Hossein Zamani
Department of Agricultural Extension and Education
College of Agriculture, Shiraz University
Islamic Republic of Iran
ghh_zamani@yahoo.com

An explanation of motivation that focuses on how people explain the causes of their own successes and failures is called attribution theory. The research has aimed to investigate the relationship between farmer's attributional style and their characteristics. Survey research methodology was used in this study. The population included irrigated wheat growers in Shiraz Iran. With using two stage stratified random sampling method, 217 farmers (wheat growers) were sampled and interviewed. According to the findings, there are relationships between attributions to efforts with seven of eight farmers' characteristics. Also six of eight farmers' characteristics have a significant relation with attribution to ability and task difficulty. Results show that attribution to luck has negative and significant relationship with educational level, exposuring with information sources, cosmopolitness, achievement motivation, and interest in agriculture. Considering teh results of regression models, it is obviously concluded that relationship between achievement motivation with attributional causes and attributional dimensions are stronger than the other relationships.

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Information Needs of Cassava farmers in Delta State of Nigeria; 139-145.

F. E. Omoregbee and T. O. A. Banmeke
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Benin
Benin City, Nigeria

The study assessed the information needs of cassava farmers in Oshmili North Local Government Area of Delta State. Specifically the study examined socio-economic characteristics and awareness of improved farm practices associated with cassava farming. It also assessed respondents’ information needs. Data were obtained from 80 randomly selected respondents and were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, means and correlation analysis. Results showed that more than half (55%) were male, majority (61%) have households with at least 5 members, mean farm sizes 1.5 hectares and cassava mean output of 1,500Kg. There was high awareness among respondents of agronomic practices and low awareness about agro-chemicals associated with cassava production. Findings also showed that respondents have the highest need for information on the use of herbicides (x=4.63), followed by use of pesticides (x=4.21) and fertilizer application (x=4.06). On the other hand educational status (x=-0.278) of the farmers was significantly and negatively correlated to their information needs in cassava farming. It is suggested that Delta State ADP should plan programmes to address cassava farmers’ specific educational needs in cassava production.

Keywords: Cassava farmers, information needs, extension

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