Although the idea of African farmers’ financial participation in development projects is generally received with scepticism and caution, we reported about farmers contributing to finance agricultural services in Benin. This paper uses an inductive research approach to analyze the dynamic of farmers’ motives for financing agricultural research and extension. A farmer’s socio-economic aspirations influenced his motivation to finance agricultural research and extension. These aspirations defined farmers’ pre-dispositional pattern of motivation which was determined by the existence, the combination and the precedence of specific needs (need for social prestige and need for knowledge) and expectations (expectation of material catchments and expectation of meeting farming goals). Contrary to the needs for social prestige and expectations of material catchments, high needs for knowledge and high expectations of meeting farming goals might be predispositions to sustainable motivation for financing agricultural research and extension. This conceptualization demonstrated that the motives why farmers finance ARE went beyond agricultural concerns and provides background for designing motivation strategies.
Keywords: Agricultural research and extension, Benin, financing, motivation, rural sociology
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Knowledge and Utilisation of Job Enrichment Techniques Among Extension Managers in South Western Nigeria; 77-89.
A. O. Akinsorotan1, O. I. Oladele2, and A. A. Ajadi1
1 Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development University of Ibadan, Nigeria
2 Department of Agricultural Economics, Education and Extension, Botswana College of Agriculture, University of Botswana, Gaborone
This study determined knowledge and utilization of job enrichment techniques among extension managers in South Western Nigeria. Simple random sampling method was used to select five out of the eight states in south western agricultural zone and 48 managers from 52 in the selected five states. Data using a structured questionnaire and subjected to frequency counts, percentages, One- way analysis of variance and multiple regression. The results showed that majority of the managers are married (94%), males (81%), with about 39% having at least BSc as educational qualification. About 92% of the respondents indicated the use of workshops, management training (90%) and colleagues (90%). Extension managers are more knowledgeable on techniques such as implementing participative management (96%), increasing direct feedback (96%) and rotating assignments among subordinates (94%). The most used job enrichment techniques by extension managers are: increased use of initiatives (98%), increasing the amount of job recognition for job well done (96%) and involvement of subordinates in identification and solution of problems (96%). Significant determinants of utilization of job enrichment number of information sources (t = 2.79), and Job tenure (t = 2.89). One way analysis of variance result shows that a significant difference exits in the number of constraints reported by extension managers across the states (F = 8.72, p < 0.05); with managers from Lagos state had the highest mean (9.40 ) while Ogun had the lowest (2.10).
Keywords: Job enrichment, extension managers, knowledge
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Assessment of Producer Organizations as a Strategy for Enhancing Livestock Extension in Enugu State, Nigeria; 91-104.
Nicholas Ozor, R. I. Ogbuisi, and E. M. Igbokwe
Department of Agricultural Extension
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Enugu State, Nigeria
The study assessed the use of producer organizations (POs) as a strategy for enhancing livestock extension in Enugu State, Nigeria. It specifically characterized the POs, assessed their performance and ascertained their level of adoption of improved husbandry practices. Twenty-four POs constituted the sample. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Major findings revealed that all the POs evolved traditionally with no external influence. The POs had favourable local support because they gave loans to members (25%) and accommodated non-members in some of their activities (25%). Most (50%) of the POs were comprised of women only. The poultry enterprise constituted the majority (1192) and was the most profitable with a net income of N71,600. The highest adoption rates were on early weaning, provision of drinking water, pen sanitation, and feeding with bye-products. The study concluded with a recommendation that POs should be encouraged by all tiers of government, NGOs, private sectors, and the international agencies with supports such as favourable policies, credits, inputs, and training opportunities.
Keywords: Producer organizations, livestock extension, food security, Enugu State
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Participatory Rural Appraisal as a Teaching Method to improve the Lives of Pastoralists-Women in Northern Nigeria; 105-112.
S. A. Aderinoye-Abdulwahab
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, PMB 1515, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
B. F. Umar
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto, Nigeria
Department of Agricultural Extension, PMB 1515, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
T. A. Dolapo
Kwara State Agricultural Development Programme, Ilorin, Nigeria
The educational system of nations serves as the engine room for development. Agricultural developments are hinged on researches with education as the backbone. The importance of farmer education therefore cannot be overemphasized. In sub-Saharan Africa, majority of farmers are illiterate. It is essential therefore for agricultural educators to adopt non-academic but educating methods to develop farmers. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is an educating methodology that places less emphasis on academics. This paper discusses how to educate pastoralists through their wives using PRA. The paper recommends that PRA should be used to evaluate and solve pastoralists' activities and problems.
Keywords: Education, pastoralists, participatory rural appraisal, Northern Nigeria and women
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Is Technical Content in Extension Advisory Work Still Relevant?; 113-120.
North Carolina A&T State University
Cihat Gunden and Murat Boyaci
Erdogan Oktay Ege University
Initially, farming systems relied heavily on technical innovations in production technologies as the primary means for increasing production and reducing costs. Consequently, the core function of extension was to provide advice on adopting technical innovations in production technologies. As the farming system evolved, other facets of the system such as farm management, home economics, youth, marketing, rural development, and the environment became relevant content in Extension work. With the emergence of these other knowledge areas and their perceived relevance to the farming system, the question that is now being asked is: “Is technical content (content related to production technologies) still relevant?” In this paper we argue that farming is a system in which many content areas are relevant. We further argue that all relevant content areas should be considered technical content. The paper draws on a case study of cotton farmers from the Aegean region to support our arguments.
Keywords: Farming systems, extension, production technology
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Learning from Past Agricultural Extension Approaches; 121-127.
William Rivera, Professor
University of Maryland
Gary E. Alex, Consultant
U.S. Agency for International Development
This paper reviews a number of past agricultural development tools that for different reasons have dropped from the development agenda. It begins with the current inattention to the AKIS/RD agricultural knowledge and information system in favor of the AIS agricultural innovation system. It then reviews three extension systems currently ignored or neglected: the Training and Visit management system (T&V), the Communication for Technology Transfer in Agriculture (CTTA), and the Strategic Extension Campaign (SEC). The paper argues that new approaches must build on past experience rather than reject these in toto and jump to new models that can become fads.
Keywords: AKIS, agricultural innovation, extension systems
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Effective Factors on Farmers' Attributional Style; 129-138.
Arman Bakhshi Jahromi
Department of Socio-Economics
Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre
Kerman, Islamic Republic of Iran
Gholam Hossein Zamani
Department of Agricultural Extension and Education
College of Agriculture, Shiraz University
Islamic Republic of Iran
An explanation of motivation that focuses on how people explain the causes of their own successes and failures is called attribution theory. The research has aimed to investigate the relationship between farmer's attributional style and their characteristics. Survey research methodology was used in this study. The population included irrigated wheat growers in Shiraz Iran. With using two stage stratified random sampling method, 217 farmers (wheat growers) were sampled and interviewed. According to the findings, there are relationships between attributions to efforts with seven of eight farmers' characteristics. Also six of eight farmers' characteristics have a significant relation with attribution to ability and task difficulty. Results show that attribution to luck has negative and significant relationship with educational level, exposuring with information sources, cosmopolitness, achievement motivation, and interest in agriculture. Considering teh results of regression models, it is obviously concluded that relationship between achievement motivation with attributional causes and attributional dimensions are stronger than the other relationships.
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Information Needs of Cassava farmers in Delta State of Nigeria; 139-145.
F. E. Omoregbee and T. O. A. Banmeke
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Benin
Benin City, Nigeria
The study assessed the information needs of cassava farmers in Oshmili North Local Government Area of Delta State. Specifically the study examined socio-economic characteristics and awareness of improved farm practices associated with cassava farming. It also assessed respondents’ information needs. Data were obtained from 80 randomly selected respondents and were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, means and correlation analysis. Results showed that more than half (55%) were male, majority (61%) have households with at least 5 members, mean farm sizes 1.5 hectares and cassava mean output of 1,500Kg. There was high awareness among respondents of agronomic practices and low awareness about agro-chemicals associated with cassava production. Findings also showed that respondents have the highest need for information on the use of herbicides (x=4.63), followed by use of pesticides (x=4.21) and fertilizer application (x=4.06). On the other hand educational status (x=-0.278) of the farmers was significantly and negatively correlated to their information needs in cassava farming. It is suggested that Delta State ADP should plan programmes to address cassava farmers’ specific educational needs in cassava production.
Keywords: Cassava farmers, information needs, extension
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