Journal of Extension Systems

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2008, Volume 24(1), June

Editorial: Om S. Verma, Chief Editor
Fond Farewell: John Richardson, Out-going Academic Editor
Message from Dr. James Phelan: In-coming Academic Editor
From the Desk of Chief Editor
Biography of Professor James Phelan

  1. Social Capital Status in Two Indian Villages and Implications for Extension, N. R. Gangadharappa, David G. Acker, P. G. Chengappa, S. Ganesamoorthi, Sunil Kumar, M. V. Sajeev, & Difei Shen
  2. Use of Social Network Analysis to Identify Opinion Leaders: A Case of Organic Hazelnut Producers in Turkey, Kursat Demiryurek
  3. Cattle Owners Willingness-to-Pay for Extension Services in South Africa, Francis D. K. Anim
  4. Toward a Framework for Cost-Sharing of Agricultural Technology Delivery in Nigeria, A. E. Agwu, N. A. Chukwuone, & N. Ozor
  5. Econometric Analysis of the Determinants of Participation in Agricultural Extension Services: An Example from Pakistan, Inayatullah Jan, Naushad Khan, Shaheen Nigar Shoukat
  6. Factors that Influence the Adoption of Cocoa Integrated Pest by Farmer Field School Graduates in Cameroon, J. N. Lapbim, J. Gockowski, I. R. Tchouamo, & D. Wandji
  7. Perceptions toward Sustainable Agricultural Practices: A Case of Potato Farmers in Hamedan Province of Iran, M. Ahmadvand
  8. Challenges of Wheat Consulting Engineers in Providing Agricultural Advisory Service: A case Study in Esfahan Province of Iran, Akbari Morteza, Asadi Ali, & Shabanali Fami Hossain
  9. SmokingInjurious to Health: World No Tobacco Day, Om S. Verma

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EDITORIAL: Genetically Modified Foods

Earth’s population will reach a 9 billion mark by 2040. Regular Food Production Systems can not feed this vast population. We need crops that can be more productive, offer better nutritional quality, can withstand drought, use fertilizers more efficiently, and resist diseases and ‘pests. GM Foods can achieve these goals. Scientific endeavours are, therefore, heading towards producing Genetically Engineered fruits, vegetables, and several food crops capable of providing entire day’s nutritious in a single meal. These efforts have now resulted in the availability of Potato with 33 per cent more protein content, modified Tomatoes capable of protecting against cancer, and Peanuts without the chemicals that cause deadly nut allergies.

Europe is going to become ever more important for global food production as GM is getting increasingly more appealing there since their introduction in 1996. In UK, for example, Fish oils are being produced from the modified Rapeseed Plants which are said to be good for heart and nervous systems.

Genetically Modified Foods have now been widely adopted in North America, South America, Asia, Australia, and South Africa. Globally, about 280 million acres were planted in 2007 especially to produce GM crops mainly Soybeans, Maize, Cotton, and Rapeseed. These are said to be tolerant of specific herbicides. Similarly, GM Cotton and Maize are being produced with genes taken from Bacteria that enable them to produce their own insecticides. Hence, it reduces the need for pesticides.

Scientists in China have identified a single gene called Ghd7 which can double the Rice yield, reduce double the time to flowering, and a 67 per cent increase in ‘plant height. Global efforts are, therefore, needed to increase the crop productivity by manipulating a single gene which could retain three traits in crop production: high yields, increasing number of grains per cluster of flowers, and increase in plant height.

There is, however, a backlash from the Consumers’ suspicions of DNA contamination in the plants grown with genetic modifications. Apprehending transgenic contamination, India has imposed a ban on GM trials in Basmati Rice and in Basmati growing areas. The idea is to save Basmati Rice from the stigma of GM contamination so that India could retain its competitive edge in the World Trade Market.

Another major setback to the GM Lobby is documented to question the pest resistance and Bt gene induction in Bt Cotton which happens to be the only GM crop cleared for commercial production in India. Monsanto India, a Franchisee of US giant Monsanto Corporation, is producing GM seed of Bt Cotton under the trade name “Ballgard-II”.

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore came up with transgenic variety of Bt. Brinjal. Cultivation of the Genetically Modified Brinj al is reported to be saving a sum of Rs.4375 per hectare on account of insecticides.

Beside the contentious field of Genetically Modified Crops, there is yet another poorly known Radiation Breeding which is producing thousands of useful mutant crops including varieties of Rice, Sunflowers, Peanuts, Grape Fruits, Sesame, Bananas, Cassava, and Sorghum. Mutant wheat is said to be widely used for bread and pasta. Similarly, mutant Barley is used for the production of fine Beers and Scotch Whiskies. Radiation Breeding is, therefore, very useful mutation which can improve yields, quality, taste, size, resistance to diseases, and can help plants adapt to diverse climates and conditions. Instead of GM Foods, these are disparaged as “Franken Foods”.

GM Foods or Franken Foods or Regular Foods, or Processed Foods, or Untested Foods, what at least the consumers expect is the “Labeling” so that they could exercise their right for free choice in the matter of food they wish to eat. Environmental Activists suspect that imported Products that contain soya, corn, canola, or cottonseed ingredients are possibly genetically modified. Some countries do not have a system of segregation in labeling. It is, therefore, all the more necessary to make labeling Mandatory on all food products. India imports GM mixed Soybean oils from countries like USA, Brazil, and Argentina.

What we really need is nutritionally enhanced crops and not high yielding crops as has been the notion. This way the end product either GM Foods or Franken Foods should be capable of providing most of a day’s nutrients in a single meal so as to get rid of two-square meal theory.

Om S. Verma, Chief Editor

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FOND FAREWELL
A Message from Dr. John Richardson
Out-Going Academic Editor

Way back in the year 2000, Dr. Layle Lawrence approached me and asked if I would consider accepting the role of Academic Editor of the Journal of Extension Systems. Dr. Lawrence had served as the Academic Editor for many years, but planned to retire from his faculty position at West Virginia University. Fortunately, I was well aware of the Journal, and had submitted a few papers for publication. I also knew Dr. Verna as a result of our attending an Association for- International Agricultural and Extension Education (AIAEE) conference in Washington, D.C. in the late 1990’s. The rest is now history.

I did accept the challenge that Drs. Verma and Lawrence presented to me, and have found the role of Academic Editor richly rewarding as well as personally stressful at times over the past seven years. The rewarding part is the opportunity to see the extension scholarship production from across the world, and to interact with a vast number of extension professionals who kindly offer their manuscripts for review and potential publication. The stressful parts come when many manuscripts fail to meet publication standards, and messages of non-acceptance must be sent to those authors. Unfortunately, only about twenty per cent of all submissions make it through the acceptance process and publication so many such messages must be submitted each year. Other stressful moments have arisen when a fairly large number of Submissions arrive during the busiest parts of my regular job duties as a faculty member in the Department of Agricultural and Extension Education here at North Carolina State University. Usually, the most manuscripts arrive when I am engaged in extensive responsibilities leading the accountability functions of the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service and the Agricultural Research Service at N. C. State.

It has been my philosophy that those authors who submit their manuscripts should receive prompt feedback. Fortunately, most of my peer, cooperating reviewers have shared the same philosophy, so we hope this has been beneficial to the authors. Based on the many positive responses I have received personally, this prompt response has been greatly appreciated.

After having served as the Journal’s Academic Editor for seven years, I now find that time has continued to creep past, and as Dr. Lawrence before me, I am also nearing retirement from my professional extension career that has spanned some forty years. I do not plan to completely disappear from my professional extension functions, and shall look forward to continuing to visit with and communicate with extension colleagues from across the globe.

Indeed, I am looking forward to continuing to serve the Journal of Extension Systems as a member on the Board of Governors. As I step aside the Academic Editor, however, I am truly pleased that Dr. James Phelan of the University College Dublin in Ireland is taking on this duty, and I know Jim will do a truly great job. I have known Jim for many years, and his knowledge of extension and scholarship are recognized across the globe. I cannot think of a more capable individual to accept these duties, and I wish Jim much success. I also wish Dr. Verma continued success as the Chief Editor and Publisher. His leadership and sustained dedication has led to the Journal of Extension Systems becoming one of the leading scholarly Journals worldwide that focuses on extension theory, process and practice.

My gracious appreciation and thanks are extended to all who have and will continue to contribute to making the Journal of Extension Systems the respected publication it is today, and the truly outstanding Journal that it promises to remain in the future.

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A Message from Dr. James Phelan
In-coming Academic Editor

Dear Colleagues,

As Dr. John Richardson bids farewell, it is indeed a great honour for me to take up the position of academic editor for the Journal of Extension Systems. My first task must be to sincerely thank John for his years of dedication, professionalism and commitment to this Journal. He has been an outstanding Academic Editor and I am sure he carries with him all our best wishes. I know he wants to spend more time with his wife Kathy and to pursue other interests, which will again call on his valuable time. I am delighted that he has agreed to stay on the Board of Governors, where his advice and insights will be most useful.

I have spent most of my working life in the area of agricultural extension and agricultural development. I have been lucky enough to gain some amount of international experience in these areas through my work with a number of countries outside of Ireland. I have also been lucky to work with extension colleagues form International Agricultural and Extension Education (AIAEE). I know that these experiences will be very valuable in my role as Academic Editor of the Journal of Extension Systems, a position I have agreed to take on for the next 3 years.

It is my intention to have articles reviewed as quickly as possible. I know the frustration caused by undue delays. I also know that I can rely on the support of Governors and academic colleagues in this regard. Over the last number of months, I have received submissions to the journal as well as the recommendations of the reviewers. Thus, I hope the transition can be done smoothly and without causing undue delays. I look forward to receiving high quality articles, as I firmly believe that this adds to the quality and reputation of a journal.

Sincerely,

Professor James F. Phelan
Academic Editor
Journal of Extension Systems

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From the Desk of Chief Editor

You have been connected to Journal of Extension Systems either as a Contributor, or a Subscriber, or a Member on its Board of Governors, or simply a JES-Reader. Many of you have made tremendous impact on establishing, this Journal. Today, it is widely acclaimed Extensionists’ professional journal of international repute. A large part of the credit goes to some of our colleagues, notably Prof. Layle Lawrence, Prof. John Richardson, Dr. Gary Wingenbach, and Prof. Gustav Duvel. Initial help rendered by Prof. Herbert Lionberger, Dr. Paul Leagans, Dr. Niels Roling, Dr. Max Lowdermilk, Dr. Abraham Blum, Dr. Michael Cernea, Dr. Edger Boone, Dr. A. W. Van den Ban, and Dr. Hartmut Albrecht in taking, the journal off the ground is unforgettable. Almost one decade of back-breaking labor put-in by Prof. John Richardson has made this journal a hot-cake in the World market. Now that the mantle has been handed over to Dr. James Phelan, another stalwart in Extension Fraternity, the journal is expected to strike peak of the glory in coming years.

However, somewhere down the line, we are still missing one link of the journal. Number of subscribers is not that much which should have been by now. Most of the subscribers are individual professionals who on getting their paper published discontinue subscribing to the journal. This phenomenon makes a big jolt in the business of publishing.

These days, everything is so expensive that it has become difficult to pull on with these exorbitant expenditures. It is, therefore, inevitable now to strengthen the revenue structure.

One simple way to enhance the revenue of the journal is to increase the number of subscribers, that too institutional subscribers. It is my humble request to you that you at least procure two regular subscriptions. We were shocked to learn that many of the Universities / Institutions in which JES affiliates work are still not the subscriber. Kindly see to it that this lapse does not exist.

As perhaps you already know that the remittance can be routed through any one of the THREE Channels: (1) Cashier’s Check in the name of “Journal of Extension Systems”, (2) Western Union Money Transfer, and (3) Online with the Swift Code: “SBI NIN 1313529, IP NO.: 102641 for further credit of State Bank of India, Napean Sea Road Branch, Mumbai, Current Account No.: 10194647008 Journal of Extension Systems”. Right from the JES inception in 1985, subscription rates are still the same at USD 32 per volume.

Next year in December-2009, we are celebrating Silver Jubilee of the journal. One part of the celebration is the “World Extension Congress”. First Announcement of this Meet is published in this very issue. Please get prepared for this big event. In this program, your help is solicited in whatever the way you deem fit. Meanwhile, please feel free to get in touch with me without any hesitation.

Dr. Om S. Verma, Chief Editor
Journal of Extension Systems

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Biography of Professor James Phelan

James (Jim) Phelan is a citizen of the Republic of Ireland. His early years were spent on his parent’s farm in midlands of Ireland. After graduating from secondary school, he attended University College Dublin (UCD) from where he graduated in 1974 with a Bachelor’s Degree in Agriculture Science. On leaving UCD, he immediately began as an extension officer and worked in this position in a number of different counties in Ireland for 7 years before returning to UCD, with support from the Kellogg Foundation, to undertake a Masters Degree in Agricultural Extension. After completing his studies, lie took up the position of Assistant Lecturer in Rural Sociology in the Department of Agricultural Extension at UCD. He enrolled for a Ph. D and as part of his studies; he attended courses in sociology and research methods at UCD, the University of Essex and the University of Madison, Wisconsin in the USA. He completed his Ph. D in 1985.

On employment in the Department of Agricultural Extension, he began teaching courses in research methods and in rural sociology. He continues to teach research methods to undergraduate, postgraduate and open and distance learning students. He progressed from Assistant lecturer to College Lecturer to Senior Lecturer and Associate Professor before being appointed as a full Professor in Extension and Rural Development.

Professor Phelan’s research interests include agricultural extension systems, rural development, open and distance learning and he has published widely both nationally and internationally. He carried active outreach activities having for over 10 years being Director of the Rural Development Unit in UCD. He also served as Head of the Department of Agribusiness, Extension and Rural Development for a 9-year period from 1995 to 2003. Professor Phelan has significant international experience having worked for periods on extension and agricultural related programmes in Hungary, Poland, Greece, Russia, Ukraine and Denmark. He has a long association with Africa, particularly Tanzania where he worked for almost 15 years as the UCD specialist with the Sokoine University of Agriculture Extension Training Project (SEP).

More recently, he has worked on the newly developed Agriculture Sector Development Programme (ASDP). He has also worked for short periods on agricultural development projects in Ethiopia and Uganda.

Professor Phelan is a past president of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education. He is also a past president of the Agricultural Science Association of Ireland and The Agricultural Economics Society of Ireland and has served on the Ireland Aid Task Force for Agriculture and The National Anti Poverty Strategy Group in Ireland. In March 2007, he took up the position of Dean of Agriculture at University College Dublin.

Om S. Verma, Chief Editor
Journal of Extension Systems

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Social Capital Status in Two Indian Villages and Implications for Extension; 1-16.

N. R. Gangadharappa
Joint Forest Planning and Management Coordinator
Forest Department
Aranya Bhavan, Bangalore

David G. Acker, Professor
Department of Agricultural Education
Iowa State University, USA
(Corresponding author; E-mail: dacker@jastate.edu)

P. G. Chengappa, Vice Chancellor
University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore

S. Ganesamoorthi
Department of Agricultural Extension
University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore

Sunil Kumar
Department of Agricultural Extension
University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore

M. V. Sajeev,
Department of Agricultural Extension
University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore

Difei Shen, Post-Doctoral Research Fellow
Department of Agricultural Education
Iowa State University, USA

This article analyzes the social capital status in two villages in Karnataka State India, as a prerequisite for developing extension strategies that promote sustainable rural livelihoods, Interviews were conducted with 120 household heads to ascertain tine ‘household’s existing social capital status and to investigate the relationship between 14 independent variables and social capital status. Six variables-level of education, area under agriculture, annual investment in agriculture, -long-term investment in agriculture, cosmopoliteness, and mass media usage-had a positive and significant relationship, whereas three variables-area under agriculture, Ion – 9 term investment in agriculture, and cosmopoliteness-collectively explained 37.2% of the variation in social capital between the groups. The results suggest a need for further research to identify other variables that help to explain social capital status. However, understanding some of the dynamics in social capital formation can help rural development leaders working in these villages to design better extension.

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Use of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to Identify Opinion Leaders: A Case of Organic Hazelnut Producers in Turkey; 17-30.

Kursat Demiryurek
Ondokuz Mayis University
Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics
55139 Kurupelit, Samsun, Turkey
E-mail: kursatd@onlu.edu.tr

Social network analysis (SNA) is one of the powerful methods which can be identify opinion leaders who can play a critical role to influence other people, .rate or disrupt diffusion of innovations in rural communities. However, it is relatively difficult to identify opinion leaders and their roles in rural societies. This case employed an exploratory and qualitative approach to illustrate and t the information system and communication networks for organic hazelnut producers in Camlica village of the Black Sea region, Turkey. The evolution of the information systems showed how and why the organic producers were initially from their conventional counterparts. The current communication networks organic hazelnut producers also illustrated the later separation themselves into two cliques, and identified the leader farmer who played an important role to organize some producers to establish their own organic farmers’ union.

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Cattle Owners’ Willingness-to-Pay for Extension Services in South Africa; 31-43.

Francis D. K. Anim, Senior Lecturer
University of South Africa (UNISA)
Unisa 003
Pretoria, South Africa

This study employs a multinomial Logit model to analyze factors influencing cattle owners’ willingness-to-pay for extension services. The study is based on a cross sectional survey of 156 cattle owners interviewed in three agricultural districts of the Limpopo province in South Africa. The results suggest that age and off farm employment are the most significant determinants of willingness-to-pay for government and/or private extension services Policy implications give due consideration to extension services offered for payment targeting rural areas dominated by old and experienced cattle owners who have some off-farm employment.

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Towards a Framework for Cost-Sharing of Agricultural Technology Delivery in Nigeria; 44-62.

A. E. Agwu
Department of Agricultural Extension
University of Nigeria Nsukka
Enugu State, Nigeria
E-mail: agwuekwe1@yahoo.com

N. A. Chukwuone
Centre for Rural Development and Cooperatives
University of Nigeria Nsukka
Enugu State, Nigeria
E-mail: nnachukwuone@yahoo.coi-n

N. Ozor
Department of Agricultural Extension
University of Nigeria Nsukka
Enugu State, Nigeria
E-mail: nicsunny_ozor@hotmail.com

With progressive decline in the funding delivery in of agricultural technology delivery in Nigeria following the expiration of the World Bank’s component of the funding arrangement, the emerging trend is towards a more pluralistic conception of extension as found in many other developing countries. This study aimed at developing an operational framework for cost sharing of agricultural technology delivery in Nigeria. Priority areas of cost-sharing, patterns of cost-sharing and institutional reforms necessary for cost-sharing arrangement were ascertained through interviewing 267 farmers and 272 extension personnel of the Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Percentages, means, chi-square, standard deviations and t-test statistics were used in realizing objectives. The results show that cost should be shared in the areas of commercial livestock production, farm input distribution, and agro forestry practices. The most appropriate pattern of cost sharing is paying specified amount through cooperative organizations annually. Provision of credit facilities and strengthening the research extension farmer input facilities strengthening extension input linkage system are institutional reforms that will engender cost-sharing.

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Econometric Analysis of the Determinants of Participation in Agricultural Extension Services: An Example from Pakistan; 63-75.

Inayatullah Jan
Institute of Development Studies (IDS)
NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan
E-mail: inayat43@yahoo.com

Naushad Khan
Institute of Development Studies (IDS)
NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan
E-mail: gena_khanl@yahoo.com

Shaheen Nigar Shaukat
Institute of Development Studies (IDS)
NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan
E-mail: nigar_1956@yahoo.com

Farmers’ participation in agricultural extension services is quintessential for increasing agricultural production. To explore what factors contribute to a household’s participation in agricultural extension; this study was carried out in North West Frontier Province of Pakistan in 21005-06. Using a binary logistic regression model, this paper depicts that possession of land is a key determinant for a household participation in extension services. The variables included in the model have attributes of both individual as well as household level characteristics. However, only land holding showed significant influence on participation in agricultural extension services. It is concluded that the extension workers visit only large and well situated farmers and do not go to small farmers. For the long run productivity of the overall extension system, it is recommended that the extension workers should promote regular contacts with small farmers who constitute a large proportion of the farming community.

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Factors that Influence the Adoption of Cocoa Integrated Pest Management by Farmer Field School Graduates in Cameroon; 76-93.

J. N. Lapbim, Agronomist, junior Researcher
IITA Humid Forest Ecoregional Center
P.O. Box 2008
Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon
E-mail: lapbim@yahoo.com

J. Gockowski, Senior Researcher
IITA Humid Forest Ecoregional Center
P.O. Box 2008
Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon
E-mail: j.gockowski@cgiar.org

I. R. Tchouamo, Associate Professor
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology
Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences
University of Dschang
P.O. Box 245, Dschang, Cameroon
E-mail: itchouamo@yahoo.com

D. Wandji, Associate Researcher
IITA Humid Forest Ecoregional Center
P.O. Box 2008
Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon
E-mail: n.wandji@cgiar.org

The Cocoa integrated pest management Farmer Field School was implemented in Cameroon to solve the predominant problem of cocoa black pod disease. This paper quantifies using an econometric model, the factors that influence the adoption of cocoa integrated pest management technologies by farmer field school graduates in the centre province of Cameroon. The results show that the factors that positively influence Farmers decision to apply the IPM technological package are the level of education, family size, membership to a farmer organization and previous knowledge of improved spraying practices. Factor found to negatively affect the application of IPM technological package was the size of the coco farm. Policy recommendations are drawn from this study.

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Perceptions toward Sustainable Agricultural Practices: The Case of Potato Farmers in Hamedan Province, Iran; 94-105.

M. Ahmadvand

The process of mobilizing farmers for sustainable agriculture initiatives depends very much on problem solving sustainable agricultural barriers. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of potato farmers with respect to sustainable agriculture. For this purpose, the survey study in West Iran assessed the perceptions of 105 randomly selected potato farmers living in Hamedan province. Data were collected in 2001 through questionnaires and structured interviews. By and large, findings revealed that little financial return to fanners, low extension workers’ knowledge, low farmers’ knowledge with respect to sustainable agriculture, and low levels of farmers’ education were the major barriers to adoption of sustainable agriculture. Also, findings showed that farmers believed in a main role for government in achieving sustainable agricultural practices.

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Challenges of Wheat Consulting Engineers (WCEs) in Providing Agricultural Advisory Service-A Case Study in Esfahan Province, Iran; 106-110.

Akbari Morteza, M. Sc. Student
Asadi Ali, M. Sc. Student
Shabanali Fami Hossain, Assistant professor
Department of Agricultural Extension and Education
College of Agricultural Economics and Development
The University of Tehran-Kara]-Iran
Corresponding author: Morteza akbari
E-mail: m62akbary@gmail.com

Extension services must continually adapt to the changing environment and to the changes in farm family circumstances so as to remain relevant. Change is difficult to implement particularly for large scale public sector extension agencies. In the national agricultural extension system of The Islamic Republic of Iran, the Wheat Consultant Engineers (WCEs) project was developed as a new and dynamic advisory program titled as. “The Opportunities For Fan-n Families Program,” as an effort to support farm families in adjusting to their changing agricultural environment particularly to the reforms in the common agricultural policy frame work of the country. The purpose of this paper was to outline the key challenges faced by personnel in the WCEs project in order to introduce this new advisory, program for the delivery of advises. These challenges included strategic, logistic and supportive, structural-economical, coordination as well as farmers’ characteristics.

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Smoking–Injurious to Health: World No Tobacco Day, 31 May, 2008; 111-122.

Om S. Verma

Globally, 36 per cent of men population smoke compared to 8 per cent of women. The WHO says that smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death worldwide claiming 4.9 mill on lives annually. In. order to deal with this menace, smoking in public places has been banned in India. Britain has introduced the License system with the smokers. The Netherlands has imposed ban n on Coffee shops selling Marijuana. Public outcry has made several States in USA smoke-free. The question still -remains, whether these measures are adequate enough. No, we have to battle out this problem from two different angles. One is to devise the Quitting Smoking Strategy and another Persuasive Approach to get rid of bad habits and thus build healthy societies. This Article carries the mainstream ideas in -these directions.

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