Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
2006, Volume 22(2), December
O. S. Verma, Editorial
Impact of Cocoa Crop and Pest Management Knowledge through Farmer Field
School (FFS) Approach in Cameroon, Tchouamo, I. R., Lapbim,
J. N., Wandji, D., & Gockowski, J.
- Evaluating a
Public-Funded, Privately Delivered Agricultural Extension System in Honduras,
Hanson, J. C., Just, R. E., & Lainez, J. R.
- Farm Income and
Sustainable Livelihoods in Ireland, Phelan, J.
Involvement in Fisheries Industry as a Income Generation and Poverty
Alleviation in Nigeria, Ajayi, M. T., & Ehigiator, F. A. R.
Empowerment of Women Farmers Participation in Social Groups: A South Western
Nigeria Experience, Amoo, B. T. O., & Olowu, T.
- Challenges of
Infusing Information and Communication Technologies in Extension for
Agricultural and Rural Development in Ghana, Annor-Frempong,
F., Kwarteng, J., Agunga, R., & Zinnah, M. M.
Education for Rural People in Developing Countries: Turkish Experience,
- Assessment of
use of Participatory Tools by Extension Agents in Ogun State of Nigeria,
Akinbile, L. A., Dauda, S. A., & Oladoja, M. A.
Extension: A case study of Coca Production, Lunzer, E. A. &
Rivera, W. M.
It is a sense of internal wellness, a feeling of physical,
mental, and spiritual goodness, and satisfactory state of body, mind, and
soul. Are some people really born with these forms of happiness. In other
words, is happiness inherent in our genes. Dr. David Lykken of Minnesota-USA
in his studies with 400 sets of twins concluded that at least 50 per cent of
our basic happiness comes from gene programming our brain. Environmental
factors determine only collective contentment.
Timothy Sharp who founded Happiness Institute in Australia
argues that just okness is not the state of happiness. Happiness comes from
when you really feel great. The United States Economist Paul Zane Pilzer in
his book "Wellness Revolution" states that once the Basic Needs are met,
additional Wealth adds very little to happiness. This view is corroborated
by the Researchers from the Princeton University whose findings are recently
published in the "Journal of Science". They say that most of us vastly
exaggerate that higher income increases happiness. They concluded that
although high income is widely associated with good-mood, a sign of
happiness, but it is mostly "Illusory". People with above average income are
relatively better satisfied with their lives.
Researchers headed by Heather Lacey at VA Ann Arbor
Healthcare systems and the University of Michigan who published their
findings in the June 2006 issue of the Journal of Happiness Studies say that
people are happier with their lives the older they get. It is so because
older people stop worrying about Achieving and start thinking about
Enjoying. Hence, they shift their goal more to social relationships and
making their moods better rather than Sweating at the smaller stuff.
One School of Thought is that happiness is within you. Just
calm your Mind and Relax. A calm and detached mind is the gate to true
happiness. It apparently means that happiness is Attainable. True, it is
inherent in our Soul but is hidden and covered by our endless Thoughts,
Desires, Worries, Likes & Dislikes, Tensions, Objects, Events, and
circumstances. Get rid of these by releasing the phobia and be conscious of
your happiness. Joy is an inseparable part of our consciousness.
So, the happiness is intrinsically individualistic which can not be
propagated by External Agency.' Essentially, it is self-achievement and not
a gift bestowed upon by some-one else. It is not a pill either that can be
prescribed. The domain of happiness is our innermost-self.
Academics at Gothenburg University in Sweden report that "Working Hard" to
reach a goal often brings more satisfaction than the goal itself. Research
Leader Bengi Bruelde says that Money, Love, and Success bring only temporary
joy. Once you get used to it, then the happiness is over. Striving hard to
achieve something special gives a purpose to life and this is the meaning of
true happiness. Bruelde who is writing a book called "Pain and Happiness"
adds that people are happiest when they face and conquer a challenge, which
is outside their normal routine. Next to hard-work, Bruelde lists Love and
Friendship as important in search of a happy and fulfilled life.
World-Map of Happiness prepared by British Social Psychologists from the
University of Leicester, Adrian White, rates 178 countries overall sense of
well-being against three major indicators of happiness: health, Wealth, and
Access to Education. According to the findings of this study, Denmark has
been shown to be the World's Happiest country and Brundi in Africa
unhappiest one. Ranks of some selected countries in this Happiness Index are
Table: Happiness Index
Ranks derived in this Study show that 7 of the 10 happiest countries are
from Western Democracies, while countries in Asia known for their strong
cultural values, family ties, and collective identities scored surprisingly
low with China in 82 place, Japan at 90, and India at 125. The Map claiming
to be the first to illustrate International Differences in Happiness placed
USA at 23, UK at 41, and France at 62.
The London-based MTV Networks International Global Survey (November 2006)
that covered more than 5400 young people in the age group of 16-34 years old
in 14 countries: Argentina, Brazil, China, Denmark, France, Germany, India,
Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, South Africa, Sweden, the UK and the United
States, reported that overall 43 per cent young people in the world are
happy with their lives. Indian youths are found the Happiest lot and Most
Religious in line with the well-adjusted attitudes. Well-provided Japanese,
on the other hand, are found utterly miserable with 8 per cent on the
Youthful-Joy Scale and whopping 76 per cent admitted to no religious compass
at all. Seventy per cent Argentina's and 80 per cent Mexicans said they are
blissfully happy. The MTVNI illustrated a great happiness divide that marks
less than 30 per cent in United States and 50 per cent in UK accepting they
are happy with the way things are.
Reasons for unhappiness across the developed world included the lack of
optimism, concern over jobs, and pressure to succeed. In developing
countries, a majority in the same age group expected their lives to be more
enjoyable in the future, led by China with 84 per cent.
China comes up with a new Happiness Index, which includes ordinary people's
feeling toward their own living conditions, the natural environment, income,
employment, social welfare, innovation, and social harmony. The more they
feel satisfied in these parameters the higher the index of happiness.
David Schkade of the University of California at San Diego and Colleagues at
Princeton University, and the University of Michigan used a new method
called "Day Reconstruction Method" which involves breaking the day into a
sequence of Episodes and then rating the each activity for positive and
negative association with 6 being the strongest and zero the weakest. Among
28 activities, 900 women sample rated "Intimate relations" a positive score
of 5.10 compared to 4.59 for socializing. House work scored 3.73, which was
better than working at 3.62 and commuting with a score of 3.45. Who the
women preferred to be with, friends clearly won with a positive score of
4.36, children landed in the middle after relatives and spouses. The Boss
scored just 3.52. This method helps map women's happiness more accurately.
Bhutan promotes altogether a very different measure of happiness. Instead of
judging the nation's growth by GDP, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS is a better
indicator of national development. It takes into account the over-all
well-being of the people. The GNH is a multidimensional measure which
includes parameters like environmental preservation, cultural promotion,
free time with family, access to healthcare, gross enrolment rate in
Schools, life expectancy, and of course good governance. Stefan Priesner of
UNDP who has written a paper on GNH for Johns Hopkins says that Bhutan's
people-centric development is a workable economic model. America's Founding
Fathers, therefore, took this richer meaning of the word "Happiness".
Counter view, however, is that there are no happy States, only happy
Sociology Professor Norval Glenn at the University of Texas found in his
National Fatherhood Initiative study that odds for a happy marriage may
favor those who tie the knot between the ages of 23 and 27. Stephanie Coontz,
a Professor of History and Family Studies at Evergreen State College in
Olympia Wash says that good relationship between the Spouses is a consistent
pattern of happiness.
Andrew Cherlin, a Professor of Sociology and Public Policy at Johns Hopkins
University, Baltimore says that marrying too young or too old carries a
greater risk of divorce. Hence, get married at the peak of your age at around 25 and be happy. Frank
Furstenberg, a Sociology Professor at the University of Pennsylvania says
that the dregs in 1960 were marrying in their late twenties and early
thirties. That is not true today. Early marriages have greater chance of
being happy. Odds, however, are still exceptional. Princess Saejoko of Japan
who married at the age of 36 with the groom Yashiki Kurda, 39 reported to be
a happy couple.
Dr. O. S. Verma
Back to Top
Socio-Economic Impact of Cocoa Crop and Pest
Management Knowledge through Farmer Field School (FFS) Approach in Cameroon,
Tchouamo, I. R., Lapbim, J. N., Wandji, D., & Gockowski, J.,
I. R. Tchouamo
Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural
Sociology, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 245,
J. N. Lapbim
Agronomist, Junior Researcher, 11TA, Humid Forest Ecoregional
Center, P.O. Box 2008 Messa Yaounde, Cameroon,
Associate Researcher, STOP, 11TA Humid Forest Ecoregional Center,
P.O. Box 2008 Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon,
Senior Researcher, 11TA Humid forest Ecoregional Center, P.O. Box
2008 Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon,
This study focuses on the Socio-Economic Evaluation of
Farmer Field School Training on Integrated Pest Management in the humid
forest region of Cameroon. The main objective was to asses the impact of
integrated pest management (IPM) training on cocoa farmer field school
graduates. The results indicate that shade management, phytosanitary
harvest, pruning, improved spraying practices and grafting of improved
materials were adopted at the rate of 94, 93, 90,66 and 35% respectively,
with the overall rate of adoption of 76%. There was 47% reduction in the
frequency of spraying fungicides and 17% reduction in the number of sprayers
applied per treatment following the implementation of the training. Labour
inputs increased significantly for pruning, phytosanitary harvest, and shade
management but decreased for spraying. A partial budget analysis reveals
that the IPM practices lowered overall costs of production by 11% relative
to previous practices.
Back to Top
Evaluating a Public-Funded, Privately Delivered
Agricultural Extension System in Honduras, Hanson, J. C., Just, R. E., &
Lainez, J. R., 14-27.
James C. Hanson
1202 Symons Hall, Maryland Cooperative Extension
University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 USA
Richard E. Just
2200 Symons Hall
Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics
University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-5535 USA
Jorge R. Lainez
Proyecto de Administracion de Areas Rurales - P AAR
2da. plants, Edificio Educredito
Col. Florencia Norte,Tegucigalpa
This paper evaluates a publicly-funded, privately delivered extension
program (outsourcing) for small farmers located on the hillsides of
Honduras. It provides evidence that (a) the extension program was a success,
(b) delivery of public goods can be successfully contracted privately, ( c)
income generating activities provide the basis for successful extension
programs, implying desirable environmental outcomes best bundled with
profit-making activities, e.g., as in agro-forestry, and (d) women are
important clientele for agricultural extension programs. Economic analyses
of extension programs can be improved by a) evaluating extension activities,
not extension programs, b) extension programs should be organized as they
are perceived by farmers (i.e., profit centers), c) indicators collected to
justify payments can play a dual role in analyzing extension program
effectiveness, and d) an outsourced extension program has advantages in
overcoming problems in economic evaluations of programs when the treatment
populations are different.
Back to Top
Farm Income and Sustainable Livelihoods
in Ireland, Phelan, J., 28-43.
Department of Agribusiness, Extension and Rural
Development, National University of
Ireland, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland,
There is a wide body of literature available on the welfare and incomes
of farm households. In Ireland, there has been a
concentration on farm income as the most widely used measure of farm
household well-being. With increasing diversity within the farming community
and a rise in pluriactivity farming income as a measure of welfare is
incomplete. Similar to other countries, household income is increasing in
importance as, the preferred measure. An examination of household incomes
shows that farm households have increased their incomes in real terms
similar to other sectors in the economy. However, the increase has not come
from farm income, but mainly from income earned from off-farm employment.
The percentage of income coming from the market place has declined
significantly since entry to the European Union in 1973. While household
income is currently the preferred method, a framework for assessing welfare
based on a sustainable livelihoods/lifestyle choices approach may be more
accurate in predicting whether farmers stay farming or whether they adopt
different lifestyles. These changes in income sources have major
implications for extension services as greater opportunities for increasing
income lie outside of the farm gate rather than on the farm.
Back to Top
Women Involvement in Fisheries Industry as a Income
Generation and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria, Ajayi, M. T., & Ehigiator, F.
A. R., 44-56.
M. T. Ajayi, Department of Agricultural Economics
and Extension Services, University of Benin,
Benin City, Nigeria
F.A.R. Ehigiator, Department of Fisheries,
University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
The study assessed the income generation of women in the fisheries
industry in Edo State, Nigeria. Three riverine communities in three Local
government areas were purposively selected. A structured interview schedule
was used to elicit data from 60 randomly selected respondents. Findings show
that 58.3% of the respondents are below 41 years of age with 10% above 50
years. A majority of the respondents (76.6%) have been involved in the
fishing business for over 6 years, especially in fish marketing (73.3%),
fish processing (53.3%) and 41.7% in fish catching. Other income generating
activities include vegetable production, produce marketing, net mending and
sewing of clothes. Respondents' main reason for involvement in fishing and
other activities is due to economic hardship. Expensive inputs, poor road
networks, lack of extension support and lack of credit are the major
constraints faced by the respondents. Respondents' educational level and
years of fishing had a significant relationship with income generated. It
was recommended that government should provide good rural feeder roads,
improved extension services, adult education program, subsidized fishing
equipment and formation of cooperative society.
Back to Top
Economic Empowerment of Women Farmers Participation in
Social Groups: A South Western Nigeria Experience, Amoo, B. T. O., & Olowu,
Banmeke Tajudeen Oyekunle Amoo*
OLOWU Terry Adekunle**
*Department of Agricultural Economics and
University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, Nigeria
**Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural
University of Ibadan, lbadan, Nigeria
The study investigated the participation of women farmers in social
groups and their level of economic empowerment. A multi-stage random
sampling technique was used in selecting 347 women farmers from the randomly
selected states. Data were collected with the use of a structured interview
schedule. Frequency counts, percentage and Pearson Product Moment
Correlation coefficient were used in analyzing the data. Findings indicate
that majority of the women farmers belong to farmers associations, while
many are ordinary members of those groups that they participate in and they
regularly attend the groups functions. Findings further indicate a positive
and significant relationship between social participation and the economic
empowerment level of the women farmers (r=0.17; p<0.05). Women farmers
should in essence be encouraged to join or form viable social groups that
may enhance their economic empowerment, while cooperative lessons should be
incorporated into extension packages targeted at women farmers.
Back to Top
Challenges of Infusing Information and Communication
Technologies in Extension for Agricultural and Rural Development in Ghana,
Annor-Frempong, F., Kwarteng, J., Agunga, R., & Zinnah, M. M., 69-82.
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension
School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension
School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Department of Human and Community Resource Development
The Ohio State University,
208 Agricultural Administration Building,
2120 Fyffe Road, Columbus, OH 43210-1067, U.S.A.
Moses M Zinnah
c/o Sasakawa Global 2000, B.P. 6149
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
The proliferation of information and communication technologies, such as
cell phones, internet access and World Wide Web is inspiring extension
administrators in developing countries who are looking for cost-effective
ways of disseminating information to the masses of small farmers. Upon
closer reflection, however, the opportunity for ICTs in Extension is clouded
with many challenges, such as the need for rural electrification, provision
of computer hardware and software content and the training of Extension
agents. This paper examined the challenges of infusing ICTs in extension for
agricultural and rural development in Ghana. It found that while extension
agents' perceived interest in ICTs is high, the challenges identified above
must be overcome before ICTs in rural extension can become a reality.
Back to Top
Distance Education for Rural People in Developing
Countries: Turkish Experience, Demiryurek, K., 83-94.
Ondokuz Mayis University
Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics
55139, Kurupelit, Samsun
Distance education can be an organized nonformal or formal educational
activity. For nonformal educational efforts, the constraints of formal study
are intended to be minimized in terms of time, place and/or methods. Rural
people especially in developing countries usually have less access to both
formal education and extension services compared to the general population
due to limited budget, insufficient infrastructure, lack of extension staff
and increasing rural population. On the other hand, agricultural innovations
and technology have been constantly changing and rural people need to learn
more knowledge and skills in the globalize and competitive world. For that
reasons, it seems that distance education is one of the ideal solutions. The
main objectives of this paper are to present the role and importance of
distance education, especially the utilization of educational television in
rural areas, and then to discuss its effectiveness and limitations. The
experience of YAYCEP, the first extensive project using the distance
education method for educating rural people in Turkey is presented and
suggestions are made about how to develop and implement similar projects for
developing countries which will be used in the future. Finally, conclusions
and implications are presented to use of distance education for rural people
in developing countries.
Back to Top
Assessment of use of Participatory Tools by
Extension Agents in Ogun State of Nigeria, Akinbile, L. A., Dauda, S.
A., & Oladoja, M. A., 95-111.
Akinbile, L. A.',
Dauda, S. A', &
M. A. Oladojal
'Department of Agricultural Extension & Rural Development
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
'Department of Agricultural Extension & Rural Sociology,
Olabisi Onabanjo University,
Ayetoro Campus, Nigeria
The problem of not ensuring participation by beneficiaries affects the
sustainability of such programmes. Participatory tools can, however, be used
to ensure participation and thus sustainability of interventions. The study
was carried out to assess the participatory tools used by the extension
agents in Ogun State. It focused on the use of such tools as focus group
discussion and the stages of information dissemination at which they use the
tools. Extension agents from Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme (OGADEP)
were used as sampling frame. Thus, the study comprised of 102 extension
agents randomly selected from the organization. The questionnaires were
analyzed using chi-square and PPMC: The study shows that most of the
extension agents make use of focus group discussion, in-depth interviews and
daily activities chart. Some of the factors that motivate them are reaching
more people at a time (97.0%) and ability to appeal to several senses and
carry people along (95.0%). Results show that more of the respondents use
FGD during problem identification and dissemination of solution while they
use in-depth interview during evaluation. There is, herefore, the need to
educate the extension agents on the area of communication, in addition to
their areas of specialization in efforts at ensuring use of the tools to
ensure sustainable use of extension messages.
Back to Top
Underground Extension: A case study of Coca
Production, Lunzer, E. A. & Rivera, W. M., 112-121.
Emily A. Lunzer
William M. Rivera
3119 Jull Hall
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742, USA
There are various ways of information and knowledge transfer: (a)
Official Public and Private Sector Extension Services, (b) Informal: Input
Agencies and their Services, and also (c) Non-Legal: Underground way when a
product is considered unsanctioned by official Bodies. This paper offers an
investigation into an isolated extension interface. It may not seem obvious
that the activities of coca farmers should be called extension activities
because these activities do not take place within a formal body.
Nonetheless, coca-farm activities are demand-led, farmer participatory
systems that are completely privatized. More importantly, these non-formal
activities lead to high productivity and are spreading among coca farmers.
The aim of this paper is not to make moral decisions on drug use, drug trade
or drug cultivation. The questions posed by this preliminary study are: How
do coca farmers propagate or exchange seeds? How do the farmers obtain
inputs? How do they obtain advice about diseases, pests, or nutrients?
Back to Top