Journal of Extension Systems

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2006, Volume 22(2), December

O. S. Verma, Editorial

  1. Socio-Economic Impact of Cocoa Crop and Pest Management Knowledge through Farmer Field School (FFS) Approach in Cameroon, Tchouamo, I. R., Lapbim, J. N., Wandji, D., & Gockowski, J.
  2. Evaluating a Public-Funded, Privately Delivered Agricultural Extension System in Honduras, Hanson, J. C., Just, R. E., & Lainez, J. R.
  3. Farm Income and Sustainable Livelihoods in Ireland, Phelan, J.
  4. Women Involvement in Fisheries Industry as a Income Generation and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria, Ajayi, M. T., & Ehigiator, F. A. R.
  5. Economic Empowerment of Women Farmers Participation in Social Groups: A South Western Nigeria Experience, Amoo, B. T. O., & Olowu, T.
  6. Challenges of Infusing Information and Communication Technologies in Extension for Agricultural and Rural Development in Ghana, Annor-Frempong, F., Kwarteng, J., Agunga, R., & Zinnah, M. M.
  7. Distance Education for Rural People in Developing Countries: Turkish Experience, Demiryurek, K.
  8. Assessment of use of Participatory Tools by Extension Agents in Ogun State of Nigeria, Akinbile, L. A., Dauda, S. A., & Oladoja, M. A.
  9. Underground Extension: A case study of Coca Production, Lunzer, E. A. & Rivera, W. M.

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Happiness

It is a sense of internal wellness, a feeling of physical, mental, and spiritual goodness, and satisfactory state of body, mind, and soul. Are some people really born with these forms of happiness. In other words, is happiness inherent in our genes. Dr. David Lykken of Minnesota-USA in his studies with 400 sets of twins concluded that at least 50 per cent of our basic happiness comes from gene programming our brain. Environmental factors determine only collective contentment.

Timothy Sharp who founded Happiness Institute in Australia argues that just okness is not the state of happiness. Happiness comes from when you really feel great. The United States Economist Paul Zane Pilzer in his book "Wellness Revolution" states that once the Basic Needs are met, additional Wealth adds very little to happiness. This view is corroborated by the Researchers from the Princeton University whose findings are recently published in the "Journal of Science". They say that most of us vastly exaggerate that higher income increases happiness. They concluded that although high income is widely associated with good-mood, a sign of happiness, but it is mostly "Illusory". People with above average income are relatively better satisfied with their lives.

Researchers headed by Heather Lacey at VA Ann Arbor Healthcare systems and the University of Michigan who published their findings in the June 2006 issue of the Journal of Happiness Studies say that people are happier with their lives the older they get. It is so because older people stop worrying about Achieving and start thinking about Enjoying. Hence, they shift their goal more to social relationships and making their moods better rather than Sweating at the smaller stuff.

One School of Thought is that happiness is within you. Just calm your Mind and Relax. A calm and detached mind is the gate to true happiness. It apparently means that happiness is Attainable. True, it is inherent in our Soul but is hidden and covered by our endless Thoughts, Desires, Worries, Likes & Dislikes, Tensions, Objects, Events, and circumstances. Get rid of these by releasing the phobia and be conscious of your happiness. Joy is an inseparable part of our consciousness.

So, the happiness is intrinsically individualistic which can not be propagated by External Agency.' Essentially, it is self-achievement and not a gift bestowed upon by some-one else. It is not a pill either that can be prescribed. The domain of happiness is our innermost-self.

Academics at Gothenburg University in Sweden report that "Working Hard" to reach a goal often brings more satisfaction than the goal itself. Research Leader Bengi Bruelde says that Money, Love, and Success bring only temporary joy. Once you get used to it, then the happiness is over. Striving hard to achieve something special gives a purpose to life and this is the meaning of true happiness. Bruelde who is writing a book called "Pain and Happiness" adds that people are happiest when they face and conquer a challenge, which is outside their normal routine. Next to hard-work, Bruelde lists Love and Friendship as important in search of a happy and fulfilled life.

World-Map of Happiness prepared by British Social Psychologists from the University of Leicester, Adrian White, rates 178 countries overall sense of well-being against three major indicators of happiness: health, Wealth, and Access to Education. According to the findings of this study, Denmark has been shown to be the World's Happiest country and Brundi in Africa unhappiest one. Ranks of some selected countries in this Happiness Index are shown below:

Table: Happiness Index

Country Rank Country Rank
Denmark 1 China 82
Switzerland 2 Japan 90
Austria 3 Srilanka 93
Iceland 4 Bangladesh 104
Bahamas 5 Nepal 119
United States 23 India 125
United Kingdom 41 Pakistan 166
France 62 Brundi 178

Ranks derived in this Study show that 7 of the 10 happiest countries are from Western Democracies, while countries in Asia known for their strong cultural values, family ties, and collective identities scored surprisingly low with China in 82 place, Japan at 90, and India at 125. The Map claiming to be the first to illustrate International Differences in Happiness placed USA at 23, UK at 41, and France at 62.

The London-based MTV Networks International Global Survey (November 2006) that covered more than 5400 young people in the age group of 16-34 years old in 14 countries: Argentina, Brazil, China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, South Africa, Sweden, the UK and the United States, reported that overall 43 per cent young people in the world are happy with their lives. Indian youths are found the Happiest lot and Most Religious in line with the well-adjusted attitudes. Well-provided Japanese, on the other hand, are found utterly miserable with 8 per cent on the Youthful-Joy Scale and whopping 76 per cent admitted to no religious compass at all. Seventy per cent Argentina's and 80 per cent Mexicans said they are blissfully happy. The MTVNI illustrated a great happiness divide that marks less than 30 per cent in United States and 50 per cent in UK accepting they are happy with the way things are.

Reasons for unhappiness across the developed world included the lack of optimism, concern over jobs, and pressure to succeed. In developing countries, a majority in the same age group expected their lives to be more enjoyable in the future, led by China with 84 per cent.

China comes up with a new Happiness Index, which includes ordinary people's feeling toward their own living conditions, the natural environment, income, employment, social welfare, innovation, and social harmony. The more they feel satisfied in these parameters the higher the index of happiness.

David Schkade of the University of California at San Diego and Colleagues at Princeton University, and the University of Michigan used a new method called "Day Reconstruction Method" which involves breaking the day into a sequence of Episodes and then rating the each activity for positive and negative association with 6 being the strongest and zero the weakest. Among 28 activities, 900 women sample rated "Intimate relations" a positive score of 5.10 compared to 4.59 for socializing. House work scored 3.73, which was better than working at 3.62 and commuting with a score of 3.45. Who the women preferred to be with, friends clearly won with a positive score of 4.36, children landed in the middle after relatives and spouses. The Boss scored just 3.52. This method helps map women's happiness more accurately.

Bhutan promotes altogether a very different measure of happiness. Instead of judging the nation's growth by GDP, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS is a better indicator of national development. It takes into account the over-all well-being of the people. The GNH is a multidimensional measure which includes parameters like environmental preservation, cultural promotion, free time with family, access to healthcare, gross enrolment rate in Schools, life expectancy, and of course good governance. Stefan Priesner of UNDP who has written a paper on GNH for Johns Hopkins says that Bhutan's people-centric development is a workable economic model. America's Founding Fathers, therefore, took this richer meaning of the word "Happiness". Counter view, however, is that there are no happy States, only happy individuals.

Sociology Professor Norval Glenn at the University of Texas found in his National Fatherhood Initiative study that odds for a happy marriage may favor those who tie the knot between the ages of 23 and 27. Stephanie Coontz, a Professor of History and Family Studies at Evergreen State College in Olympia Wash says that good relationship between the Spouses is a consistent pattern of happiness.

Andrew Cherlin, a Professor of Sociology and Public Policy at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore says that marrying too young or too old carries a greater risk of divorce. Hence, get married at the peak of your age at around 25 and be happy. Frank Furstenberg, a Sociology Professor at the University of Pennsylvania says that the dregs in 1960 were marrying in their late twenties and early thirties. That is not true today. Early marriages have greater chance of being happy. Odds, however, are still exceptional. Princess Saejoko of Japan who married at the age of 36 with the groom Yashiki Kurda, 39 reported to be a happy couple.

Dr. O. S. Verma
Chief Editor

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Socio-Economic Impact of Cocoa Crop and Pest Management Knowledge through Farmer Field School (FFS) Approach in Cameroon, Tchouamo, I. R., Lapbim, J. N., Wandji, D., & Gockowski, J., 01-13.

I. R. Tchouamo
Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural
Sociology, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 245,
Dschang, Cameroon
E-mail: itchouamo@yahoo.com

J. N. Lapbim
Agronomist, Junior Researcher, 11TA, Humid Forest Ecoregional
Center, P.O. Box 2008 Messa Yaounde, Cameroon,
E-mail: lapbim@yahoo.com

D. Wandji
Associate Researcher, STOP, 11TA Humid Forest Ecoregional Center,
P.O. Box 2008 Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon,
E-mail: n.wandji@cgiar.org

J. Gockowski
Senior Researcher, 11TA Humid forest Ecoregional Center, P.O. Box
2008 Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon,
E-mail: i.gockowsko@cgiar.org

This study focuses on the Socio-Economic Evaluation of Farmer Field School Training on Integrated Pest Management in the humid forest region of Cameroon. The main objective was to asses the impact of integrated pest management (IPM) training on cocoa farmer field school graduates. The results indicate that shade management, phytosanitary harvest, pruning, improved spraying practices and grafting of improved materials were adopted at the rate of 94, 93, 90,66 and 35% respectively, with the overall rate of adoption of 76%. There was 47% reduction in the frequency of spraying fungicides and 17% reduction in the number of sprayers applied per treatment following the implementation of the training. Labour inputs increased significantly for pruning, phytosanitary harvest, and shade management but decreased for spraying. A partial budget analysis reveals that the IPM practices lowered overall costs of production by 11% relative to previous practices.

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Evaluating a Public-Funded, Privately Delivered Agricultural Extension System in Honduras, Hanson, J. C., Just, R. E., & Lainez, J. R., 14-27.

James C. Hanson
1202 Symons Hall, Maryland Cooperative Extension
University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 USA
E-mail: Jhanson@arec.umd.edu

Richard E. Just
2200 Symons Hall
Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics
University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-5535 USA
E-mail: dust@arec.umd.edu

Jorge R. Lainez
Proyecto de Administracion de Areas Rurales - P AAR
2da. plants, Edificio Educredito
Col. Florencia Norte,Tegucigalpa
Honduras, CA
E-mail: jlainez@pbpr.ucp.hn

This paper evaluates a publicly-funded, privately delivered extension program (outsourcing) for small farmers located on the hillsides of Honduras. It provides evidence that (a) the extension program was a success, (b) delivery of public goods can be successfully contracted privately, ( c) income generating activities provide the basis for successful extension programs, implying desirable environmental outcomes best bundled with profit-making activities, e.g., as in agro-forestry, and (d) women are important clientele for agricultural extension programs. Economic analyses of extension programs can be improved by a) evaluating extension activities, not extension programs, b) extension programs should be organized as they are perceived by farmers (i.e., profit centers), c) indicators collected to justify payments can play a dual role in analyzing extension program effectiveness, and d) an outsourced extension program has advantages in overcoming problems in economic evaluations of programs when the treatment populations are different.

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Farm Income and Sustainable Livelihoods in Ireland, Phelan, J., 28-43.

James Phelan
Department of Agribusiness, Extension and Rural
Development, National University of
Ireland, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland,
E-mail: james.phelan@ucd.ie

There is a wide body of literature available on the welfare and incomes of farm households. In Ireland, there has been a concentration on farm income as the most widely used measure of farm household well-being. With increasing diversity within the farming community and a rise in pluriactivity farming income as a measure of welfare is incomplete. Similar to other countries, household income is increasing in importance as, the preferred measure. An examination of household incomes shows that farm households have increased their incomes in real terms similar to other sectors in the economy. However, the increase has not come from farm income, but mainly from income earned from off-farm employment. The percentage of income coming from the market place has declined significantly since entry to the European Union in 1973. While household income is currently the preferred method, a framework for assessing welfare based on a sustainable livelihoods/lifestyle choices approach may be more accurate in predicting whether farmers stay farming or whether they adopt different lifestyles. These changes in income sources have major implications for extension services as greater opportunities for increasing income lie outside of the farm gate rather than on the farm.

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Women Involvement in Fisheries Industry as a Income Generation and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria, Ajayi, M. T., & Ehigiator, F. A. R., 44-56.

M. T. Ajayi, Department of Agricultural Economics
and Extension Services, University of Benin,
Benin City, Nigeria

F.A.R. Ehigiator, Department of Fisheries,
University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

The study assessed the income generation of women in the fisheries industry in Edo State, Nigeria. Three riverine communities in three Local government areas were purposively selected. A structured interview schedule was used to elicit data from 60 randomly selected respondents. Findings show that 58.3% of the respondents are below 41 years of age with 10% above 50 years. A majority of the respondents (76.6%) have been involved in the fishing business for over 6 years, especially in fish marketing (73.3%), fish processing (53.3%) and 41.7% in fish catching. Other income generating activities include vegetable production, produce marketing, net mending and sewing of clothes. Respondents' main reason for involvement in fishing and other activities is due to economic hardship. Expensive inputs, poor road networks, lack of extension support and lack of credit are the major constraints faced by the respondents. Respondents' educational level and years of fishing had a significant relationship with income generated. It was recommended that government should provide good rural feeder roads, improved extension services, adult education program, subsidized fishing equipment and formation of cooperative society.
 

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Economic Empowerment of Women Farmers Participation in Social Groups: A South Western Nigeria Experience, Amoo, B. T. O., & Olowu, T., 57-68.

Banmeke Tajudeen Oyekunle Amoo* and
OLOWU Terry Adekunle**
*
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services,
University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, Nigeria
**Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development,
University of Ibadan, lbadan, Nigeria
E-mail: tajudeenbanms@yahoo.com

The study investigated the participation of women farmers in social groups and their level of economic empowerment. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting 347 women farmers from the randomly selected states. Data were collected with the use of a structured interview schedule. Frequency counts, percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient were used in analyzing the data. Findings indicate that majority of the women farmers belong to farmers associations, while many are ordinary members of those groups that they participate in and they regularly attend the groups functions. Findings further indicate a positive and significant relationship between social participation and the economic empowerment level of the women farmers (r=0.17; p<0.05). Women farmers should in essence be encouraged to join or form viable social groups that may enhance their economic empowerment, while cooperative lessons should be incorporated into extension packages targeted at women farmers.

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Challenges of Infusing Information and Communication Technologies in Extension for Agricultural and Rural Development in Ghana, Annor-Frempong, F., Kwarteng, J., Agunga, R., & Zinnah, M. M., 69-82.

Festus Annor-Frempong
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension
School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
E-mail: papaannor@yahoo.com

Joseph Kwarteng
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension
School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

Robert Agunga
Department of Human and Community Resource Development
The Ohio State University,
208 Agricultural Administration Building,
2120 Fyffe Road, Columbus, OH 43210-1067, U.S.A.

Moses M Zinnah
Winrock International
c/o Sasakawa Global 2000, B.P. 6149
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

The proliferation of information and communication technologies, such as cell phones, internet access and World Wide Web is inspiring extension administrators in developing countries who are looking for cost-effective ways of disseminating information to the masses of small farmers. Upon closer reflection, however, the opportunity for ICTs in Extension is clouded with many challenges, such as the need for rural electrification, provision of computer hardware and software content and the training of Extension agents. This paper examined the challenges of infusing ICTs in extension for agricultural and rural development in Ghana. It found that while extension agents' perceived interest in ICTs is high, the challenges identified above must be overcome before ICTs in rural extension can become a reality.

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Distance Education for Rural People in Developing Countries: Turkish Experience, Demiryurek, K., 83-94.

Kursat Demirydrek
Ondokuz Mayis University
Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics
55139, Kurupelit, Samsun
Turkey
E-mail: kursatd@omu.edu.tr

Distance education can be an organized nonformal or formal educational activity. For nonformal educational efforts, the constraints of formal study are intended to be minimized in terms of time, place and/or methods. Rural people especially in developing countries usually have less access to both formal education and extension services compared to the general population due to limited budget, insufficient infrastructure, lack of extension staff and increasing rural population. On the other hand, agricultural innovations and technology have been constantly changing and rural people need to learn more knowledge and skills in the globalize and competitive world. For that reasons, it seems that distance education is one of the ideal solutions. The main objectives of this paper are to present the role and importance of distance education, especially the utilization of educational television in rural areas, and then to discuss its effectiveness and limitations. The experience of YAYCEP, the first extensive project using the distance education method for educating rural people in Turkey is presented and suggestions are made about how to develop and implement similar projects for developing countries which will be used in the future. Finally, conclusions and implications are presented to use of distance education for rural people in developing countries.

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Assessment of use of Participatory Tools by Extension Agents in Ogun State of Nigeria, Akinbile, L. A., Dauda, S. A., & Oladoja, M. A., 95-111.

Akinbile, L. A.', Dauda, S. A', & M. A. Oladojal
'Department of Agricultural Extension & Rural Development
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
'Department of Agricultural Extension & Rural Sociology,
Olabisi Onabanjo University,
Ayetoro Campus, Nigeria

The problem of not ensuring participation by beneficiaries affects the sustainability of such programmes. Participatory tools can, however, be used to ensure participation and thus sustainability of interventions. The study was carried out to assess the participatory tools used by the extension agents in Ogun State. It focused on the use of such tools as focus group discussion and the stages of information dissemination at which they use the tools. Extension agents from Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme (OGADEP) were used as sampling frame. Thus, the study comprised of 102 extension agents randomly selected from the organization. The questionnaires were analyzed using chi-square and PPMC: The study shows that most of the extension agents make use of focus group discussion, in-depth interviews and daily activities chart. Some of the factors that motivate them are reaching more people at a time (97.0%) and ability to appeal to several senses and carry people along (95.0%). Results show that more of the respondents use FGD during problem identification and dissemination of solution while they use in-depth interview during evaluation. There is, herefore, the need to educate the extension agents on the area of communication, in addition to their areas of specialization in efforts at ensuring use of the tools to ensure sustainable use of extension messages.
 

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Underground Extension: A case study of Coca Production, Lunzer, E. A. & Rivera, W. M., 112-121.

Emily A. Lunzer
E-mail: emily.lunzer@gtna.com

William M. Rivera
3119 Jull Hall
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742, USA
E-mail: wr@umd.edu

There are various ways of information and knowledge transfer: (a) Official Public and Private Sector Extension Services, (b) Informal: Input Agencies and their Services, and also (c) Non-Legal: Underground way when a product is considered unsanctioned by official Bodies. This paper offers an investigation into an isolated extension interface. It may not seem obvious that the activities of coca farmers should be called extension activities because these activities do not take place within a formal body. Nonetheless, coca-farm activities are demand-led, farmer participatory systems that are completely privatized. More importantly, these non-formal activities lead to high productivity and are spreading among coca farmers. The aim of this paper is not to make moral decisions on drug use, drug trade or drug cultivation. The questions posed by this preliminary study are: How do coca farmers propagate or exchange seeds? How do the farmers obtain inputs? How do they obtain advice about diseases, pests, or nutrients?

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