Journal of Extension Systems

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2005, Volume 21(1), June

O. S. Verma, Editorial

  1. Group Attributes Associated with the Effectiveness of Extension Delivery: Evidence from HO District in Ghana, Anaglo, J. N., & Ladele, A. A.
  2. Extension Training Needs in Pesticides Use by Urban and Peri-urban Vegetable Growers in Central Region of Ghana, Okorley, E. L., Kwarteng, J. A., & Mensah, A. O.
  3. Perceptions of Community Resistance to Community Development Professionals in Botswana, Lekoko, R. N.
  4. Use of Agriculture Innovations in Children’s Separate Farm Plots in some Villages of Kwara State, Nigeria, Adisa, R. S.
  5. Perceptions and Psychological Coping Strategies of Farmers towards Drought: Implications for Extension Professionals, Zarafshani, K., Zamani, Gh. H., & Gorgievski, M. J.
  6. Transforming Agricultural Extension: Emergence of “Hybrid Sector” Alliances between the Public and Private Sectors, Rivera, W. M.
  7. Relative Importance of Various Skills and Attributes for Entry-level Managers as Perceived by Agribusinesses in Uganda, Mangheni, M. N., & Breazeale, D.
  8. Factors Effective Cotton Farmers’ Tendency to Participate in Financing Agricultural Extension Services in Iran, Hedjazi, Y., & Soltani, S.

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Edifice of Corruption

World of Development Report had lauded Decentralization for Effective Government defining Effectiveness as the ability of a Government to work within its Capabilities and not spread itself too thin in trying to deliver each and every service or subsidy. The question then arises, are the respective Governments really capable and effective in delivering the goods. Impression of the people is that size of the Governments and their responsibilities have surfaced as a “Hot Button Issue” not just in India but also in the United State, Europe, Japan and many developing Countries. Broken enforcement mechanism, over regulations& controls, political interference, and bureaucratic system all of which stand on negative foundations are responsible to breed corruption, Corruption is, therefore, a number-one enemy of effective Governments. Let us drill a hole and peep into the edifice of Corruption.

Transparency International, a transnational NGO spear-heading the anti-graft fight evaluated 145 countries on a ten-point scale based on Corruption Perception Index, Zero-point being the Most Corrupt and 10 point being the Least Corrupt Nation. According to its 2004 Report, Finland, New Zealand, and Denmark are the cleanest Countries with a Score of 9.7, 9.6, and 9.5 respectively. Bangladesh and Haiti with a Score of 1.5 each are the lowest on the ladder.

 

CLEANEST

MOST TAINTED

Finland

9.7

Bangladesh

1.5

New Zealand

9.6

Haiti

1.5

Denmark

9.5

Nigeria

1.6

Iceland

9.5

Myanmar

1.7

Singapore

9.3

Chad

1.7

India is ranked 90th on Corruption the Perception Index with a score of 2.8 along with Gambia, Mozambique, Nepal, Malawi, Russia, and Tanzania. India is among the world’s 55 Most Corrupt Countries. Transparency International estimates show that most of the $400 billion that is lost worldwide goes in paying the bribes. India’s share is $7 billion. Transparency International Survey further indicates that the cleanest Countries are also the richest and most corrupt are among the poorest, The United States is 40th among 54 least Corrupt Countries.

Senator Richard Lugar of US Foreign Relations Committee has stated (Washington: May 14, 2004) that $130 billion of money lent by the World Bank for development projects since 1946 has been misused. He charged that in its starkest terms, Corruption has cost the lives of uncounted individuals contending with poverty and diseases. Carole Brookins, the US Executive Director on the World Bank Board defended the Bank by saying that it has been the leading efforts of the Bank to fight Corruption but acknowledged “there is more that could be done to strengthen the system”. More that 180 companies and individuals have been blacklisted from doing business with World Bank and their names have been posted on the Bank’s public Website.

It apparently means that the World Bank and International Monetary fund have launched tough anti-corruption Campaigns. Similarly, many OECD countries that were lax earlier are now hammering out new legislations to bar bribe deductibility. Although these anti-Corruption efforts are gaining momentum, can we get rid of Corruption? Can Corruption really be wipes out? Let us probe deeper and look into stark realities.

Honesty has become rare and virtually non-existent. Honest feel they are misfit. They are projected as tactless, obstinate, and non-performers. Dishonest are tricky master of the game. They know how to protect themselves as efficient and resourceful. We spend most of our money and time on locating and punishing the dishonest and least on identifying and lauding the honest. This is where we lack in our right kind of policy. Main trust of the policy should have been to prevent reoccurrences of the wrongs done by the dishonest. Secondly, Watchdog agencies need to be pre-emptive in fault finding system so that the wrong is checked before its occurrence. Prevention is better that care policy, therefore, should be the crux of Corruption eradication campaigns. Thirdly, the complaints redressal system if not done perfectly it will encourage more corruptions. Therefore, enforcement bodies have to be cautiously alert of unscrupulous elements, manipulators. Manoevrings, and the breed of complaint lodgers. They are the ones who are always at the helm of corruption affairs. Fourthly, the bureaucracy is built on edifice of Corruption mainly because of a climate of distrust, inaction, middlemen, and unethical ways of going things. Therefore the bureaucratic system had to be cleansed.

Bewildered, can corruption be eradicated? Answer is “No” because the Very efforts are self-defeating. Edifice is built with a view to thwart the onslaught of Corruption. Corruption had spread its tentacles. We have become part of the edifice. Findings of Transparency International have also corroborated this fact. In their Report-2004, no country in the word in found absolutely free from Corruption as no country had a score of perfect 10. Therefore, the widespread prevalence of Corruption will continue to remain a global phenomenon.

It is pertinent to relate the Corruption Perception Index with Human Development Index. The HDI is a way of measuring the development. It sets a minimum and maximum, value to each parameter of development ranging with HDI, it makes an interesting reading Norway (instead of neighboring Finland) is at the top with and an HDI is a way of measuring the development. It sets a minimum and maximum value to each parameter of development ranging from zero to one. If we compare the CPI ranking with HDI, it makes an interesting reading Norway (instead of neighboring Finland) is at the top with an HDI value of .0942. There is almost a symbolic relationship between the level of Corruption prevailing in a country and the Socio-economic status of its people. Higher the human development lesser is the Corruption and Vice-Versa.

The long-term remedy, therefore, lies in the upliftment of the Socio-economic conditions of the people. Governments can tackle Corruption more effectively if serious people. It is now time, we should set our priorities right by focusing more on investment is social sector in the interest of human resources development. Of the 173 countries listed on the HDI, India is placed at 124 with a value of 0.5777. When compared with CPI, it reveals that India is 72 percent corrupt but its HDI at 58 per cent indicated that India has reached the cross-road of development much ahead of Pakistan, Bangladesh and many, other developing Countries but well behind China and Singapore.

Dr. Om S. Verma
Chief Editor

(p. i-v)

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Group Attributes Associated with the Effectiveness of Extension Delivery: Evidence from HO District in Ghana, Anaglo, J. N., & Ladele, A. A., 1-13.

J. N. Anaglo and A. A. Ladele*
Department of Agricultural Extension
University of Ghana Legon, Accra Ghana
*Dept of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

All correspondence to Dr. A. A. Ladele,
E-mail: aaladele@yahoo.com

Contact groups formed by Agricultural Extension Agent do not function properly and usually collapse and are no longer available for transmission of extension messages. A study was conducted to find out factors associated with the functioning of contact groups and the effectiveness of extension delivery. A survey research involving 17 Agricultural Extension Agents (AEAs) and 112 farmers 16 contact groups was carried out in six AEA operational areas. The AEAs used mainly proximity of farms and to a smaller extent, similarity of crops/animals as the main criteria for forming contact groups. Farmer-formed groups were more cohesive and sustainable that the AEA formed groups. However, there was no significant difference in extension delivery to Farmer-formed groups and AEA-formed groups. For the purpose of continuity and sustainability, cohesiveness in the groups that is no not essential for extension delivery, becomes vital. AEAs should encourage farmers to form their own groups so that they can later be adopted for extension work.

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Extension Training Needs in Pesticides Use by Urban and Peri-urban Vegetable Growers in Central Region of Ghana, Okorley, E. L., Kwarteng, J. A., & Mensah, A. O., 14-30.

Ernest L. Okorley, Joseph A. Kwarteng and Albert O. Mensah
Department of Agric, Economics and Extension
University of Cape Coast, Ghana
E-mail: leokorley@yahoo.com

Pests and diseases constitute a major problem in agriculture in Ghana. Vegetable farmer in urban communities use pesticides to control pests and diseases as part of routine agronomic practices undertaken to boost yields. While misuse of pesticides can constitute a major health hazard to consumers and the environment, little is documented about the competencies of local farmers in the identification, safe handling and safe use of pesticide. A major aspect of ensuring food security is the provision of good quality and wholesome agricultural produce that is safe, for public consumption. It is also important to protect the health of farmers and to avoid polluting the environment with pesticides. A major step towards achieving this is to help farmers acquire the necessary competencies through relevant and appropriate training after training needs assessment. This study assessed the training needs in pesticide use by vegetable farmers, agrochemical sellers and extension agents in the urban areas of the Central Region of Ghana. The results showed that pesticide sellers in the Central Region of Ghana have not had adequate training to understand the special nature of their work and the requirements that go with it. Vegetable farmers, pesticide sellers and extension agents in the Central Region need information and training in the use management (IPM), first aid in agrochemical poisoning, repair of pesticides application equipment, banned and restricted agrochemical and agro-ecological system analysis (AESA).

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Perceptions of Community Resistance to Community Development Professionals in Botswana, Lekoko, R. N., 31-45.

Rebecca Nthogo Lekoko, University of Botswana
P/Bag 0022 Gaborone, Botswana

Resistance can manifest in a number of behaviors such as inertia, passive and negative attitudes, lack of trust and reluctance to cooperate. Behaviors like these ones are detrimental to any community development process. ‘This paper outlines the kind of resistance that community-based extension workers (CBEWs) encountered as they worked with local communities. It documents how CBEWs past working experiences with the local communities undermined villagers’ thinking leading to considerable tension between the two parties. ‘The level of awareness on the part of the local communities rendered collaboration between CBEWs and local communities unworkable.

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Use of Agricultural Innovations in Children’s separate farm plots in some villages of Kwara State, Nigeria, Adisa, R. S., 46-57.

R. S. Adisa
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development
University of Ilorin
P.M.B. 151, Ilorin, Nigeria
E-mail: rsadisa@yahoo.com

The paper examines the use of selected agricultural innovations among children owning separate farms. Using Multi-stage random sampling to elicit data from 167 respondents, it was found that 60% actually owned separate plots - mainly as contribution to family food and income. Innovation used rates were generally low, excerpt for seed dressing (60%). Pearson correlation indicated that innovation accessibility and cost, farm size, respondents’ age and parent’s occupation were positively and significantly related to innovation use while extension contact and farming experience were not. About 30% of respondents held membership(s) of agricultural groups/clubs, which chi-square analysis revealed were significantly related to innovation use. Involving children in farming should be pursued with making them apply modern techniques and creation of child friendly farming environments.

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Perceptions and Psychological Coping Strategies of Farmers toward Drought Implications for Extension Professionals, Zarafshani, K., Zamani, Gh. H., & Gorgievski, M. J., 58-71.

K. Zarafshani
Gh. H. Zamani
Marjan J. Gorgievski

Farming is a very stressful occupation. Bad weather conditions, such as drought, contribute to the worry and stress of farmers. Drought, as slow-onset disaster, can prove just as stressful as family breakdown or serious illness. It can leave many people feeling trapped in a hopeless, irresolvable situation. Little is currently known regarding psychological response and adaptation to drought, and studies of phenomenon are rare. This exploratory study in Southwest Iran assessed the perceptions and psychological coping strategies of 360 randomly selected farmers living in drought-prone areas of Farmers province. These farmers perceived drought as a threat in their daily lives and used emotion-focused and reactive problem-focused coping strategies rather than planful and innovative ones to counteract the psychological consequences of drought. The findings obtained in this study can be helpful to extension professionals who serve the needs of farmers during agricultural crises.

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Transforming Agricultural Extension: Emergence of “Hybrid Sector” Alliances Between the Public and Private Sectors, Rivera, W. M., 83-95.

William M. Rivera
College of Agricultural and Natural Resources
University of Maryland, College Park, USA

When public sector extension is delivered privately it represents a commercial decision; when extension is delivered publicly it is a political or bureaucratic decision. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages and, of course, their proponents and detractors. To reform extension in the developing countries is not an either/or proposition but one that incorporates a balance of efforts toward the commercial realities of the marketplace and the humanitarian needs of rural households and actions---- can rapidly enter the arena of opportunity. Transforming agricultural extension requires new emphasis on extension reform, and includes the institutionalization of a “hybrid sector” of public and private alliances, as well as the involvement of both the public and private sectors in the advancement of agriculture.

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Relative Importance of Various Skills and Attributes for Entry-Level Managers as Perceived by Agribusiness in Uganda, Mangheni, M. N., & Breazeale, D., 83-95.

Margaret Najungo Mangheni
Department Head, Agricultural Extension/Education
Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Don Breazeale*
Extension Educator
University of Nevada Cooperative Extension
Lovelock, Nevada 89410, USA
E-mail: breazealed@unce.unr.edu

As Uganda has moved toward a more private sector approach for its agricultural industry, non-traditional agricultural exports have moved to the forefront. Makerere University Faculty of Agricultural has thus been faced with re-tooling its curriculum in order to produce graduates for this new private sector industry instead of traditional public sector. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic characteristics of the nontraditional agricultural exporters and then to describe the importance of various skills and attributes that contribute to the success of entry-level management employee. Seven major categories of skills/ attributes were identified; personal qualities being number one. The study goes a step further in that it recommends ways for Makerere University to incorporate these skills and attributes into its curriculum. My making these curriculum changes, Makerere will be able to produce graduates that are in demand by these increasingly important nontraditional agricultural export firms.

*Contact author

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Factor Effective on Cotton Farmers’ Tendency to Participate in Financing Agricultural Extension Services in Iran, Hedjazi, Y., & Soltani, S., 96-106.

Yousef Hedjazi
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture
Extension and Education
University of Tehran
Karaj, IRAN
E-mail: yhejazi@ut.ac.ir

Shobre Soltani
Graduate Student of Agriculture, University of Tehran
Karaj

Farmer’s participation in financing agricultural extension services is being rapidly transformed into a new paradigm on the policy for the rural development. The present research has been launched with aim of analyzing farmers’ tendency to participate in financing agricultural extension. The case study is composed of 294 cotton farmers living in 15 villages of Varamin district. Data collection was done by a questionnaire through interviews. The Kronbach for the main part of the questionnaire (farmers’ tendency to pay for the costs of agricultural extension) was found to be 0.76. Findings revealed that factors related to farmers’ tendency to participate in financing agricultural extension were: farmers’ age, level of education, experience in cotton farming, area of the land under cultivation, and his need of information.

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