Journal of Extension Systems

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2005, Volume 21(2), December

O. S. Verma, Editorial

  1. Identification and Acceptability of Linkage Principle and their Implementation n the Promotion of Participatory Extension and Rural Development in South Africa, Duvel, G. H.
  2. Performance of Services and Unequal Access to Agricultural Extension: Study case in Ain (France) and Zeeland (Netherlands), Labarthe, P.
  3. Sustainable Rangeland Management Using Fuzzy Logic: A new paradigm for rangeland Extensionists, Azadi, H., Shahvali, M., & van den Derg, J.
  4. Different Sources and Channels of Echo-sounder Technology Adoption Information Among Captains of Fishing Boats in Boushehr Province of Iran, Rezvanfar, A., & Zaereh, A.
  5. Agricultural Extension and Poverty in Iran: Past, Present, Future, And a Pro-poor Approach, Hayati, D. & Karami, E.
  6. Financing Agricultural Technology Delivery in Nigeria: Would Farmers Be Willing to Pay?, Chukwuone, N. A., & Agwu, A. E.
  7. Technology Transfer Program in Andhra Pradesh, India An Innovative Success Story, Rao Eddu, F.
  8. Another Look at Gender Issues in Extension, Freeman, S. R. & Richardson, J. G.

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Global Warming

As the evidences of Global Warming are mounting, events such as floods, draughts, and heatwaves have become the cause of panicy situations. Millions of people have already been robbed of their livelihoods across the world. In 2003, Europe was practically baking. The mercury soared 5 degree contigrade above normal. At least 35,000 people died in the heatwave that swept across Western Europe. It was the hottest August on record in the Northern hemisphere. The year ending 2004 left desert denizens stunned as snow fell over the UAE for the first time in the history enveloping the mountains of Ras al-khaimah. In Bombay deluge on 26 July-2005, a whopping 942mm of rains broke all time India's previous single day record of 838mm set in 1912. The heavy monsoon rains triggered deadly floods and led to heavy casualties. In 2005, Katrina and then Rita made one of the worst hurricane seasons in the United States, the most powerful storms that have nearly doubled in 35 years. In Sydney Australia, it was the hottest New Year’s Day of 2006 with mercury hitting 45 degree centigrade sweltering the residents. The previous warmest day was 38.1 degree centigrade in 1928.

Low-lying Bangladesh is prone to coastal flooding caused by storm surges. If the sea level goes up by 1 meter, the country will lose 17.5 percent of its land. Summer temperatures will go up as much as 8 degree centigrade in parts of Europe by 2080 turning huge swathes of Mediterranean countries to desert. Ten of the World's 17 penguin species have already been threatened or endangered. If we get a series of intense El Niños, they are going to disappear. If there is a 1 meter rise in sea level around Goa in India, 4.3 percent land of this area is going to be inundated with sea.

Global warming is likely to impact India in agriculture, bio- diversity, glaciers, and water resources. Warmer climates will result in lower rice and wheat yields. Agriculture in the coastal belts will be badly affected. Pest population will increase negatively affecting agriculture. Many species of flora and fauna which are not adapted to rising temperatures will become extinct. Some of them will migrate. Pindari glacier is shrinking at the rate of 13 meters annually and gangotri by 30 meters. According to one estimate, 95 percent of Himalayan glaciers are likely to shrink. Global warming can play havoc with monsoon patterns putting pressure on scarce water resources. Rainfall is likely to decline by 25 percent in winter leading droughts in summers. These are some of the severe effects of global climate changes.

Kyoto Global Warming Agreement negotiated in 1997 and ratified by 140 Nations came into force on 16 February 2005. According to this Pact, limits are imposed on emissions of carbon dioxide and five other gases blamed for rising global temperatures, melting glaciers, rising oceans, disrupting the Earth's environment, and weather patterns. The United States, the world largest emitter of such gases, and Australia have not yet joined hands to ratify this Agreement. They are perhaps more concerned with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. A scientific study conducted in Germany and reported in "Nature" has revealed that plants produce significant amount of Methane, a powerful greenhouse gas which helps global warming. Kyoto protocol on climate change which allows countries and companies to offset emissions from the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil by planting the trees and forests is by itself contradictory. Hence, Kyoto Treaty requires Re-thinking. The UNEP, however, warned that the effect of climate change may lead to Earth spinning out of control. Therefore, immediate steps to halt global warming are called for. This is even more striking in view of the recent finding reported in Britain which says that global temperature could rise by as much as 11 degree centigrade (19.8F) by the middle of this century. It means that at this point of temperature the planet past a point of "No Return". This report is apparently terrifying.

A pilot study called the 2006 environmental performance index jointly produced by Yale and Columbia Universities in United States shows that just six nations led by New Zealand followed by five from Northern Europe achieved 85 percent success in meeting a set of critical environmental goals ranging from clean drinking water, low ozone levels, sustainable fisheries, and low green house gas emissions. Pakistan and India both ranked among the 20 lowest scoring countries with overall success rate at 41.1 and 47.7 percent respectively. The United States ranked 28th behind most of Western Europe, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, Costa Rica, Chile. The study used 16 indicators such as land degradation, air quality, sanitation, lead exposure, indoor air pollution, energy sustainabi1ity, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, agriculture, forest, and fisheries management.

The global annual carbon dioxide emissions measured as metrie per 1 million of Gross Domestic Products averaged at about 363 tons. China and India are producing CO2 emissions more than double the world average at 731 tons and 621 tons respectively. The United States at 171 tons, France 56 tons, Japan 57 tons, Germany 80 tons, Britain 118 tons, Canada 168 tons, Australia 209 tons, and Russia 914 tons. These data clearly indicate that a large number of countries are defaulters with CO2 emissions. Environmental degradations has thus become a serious concern. The UNEP, therefore, should use its veto-power to press the world to see the link between Global Warming and livelihoods. As things get mercurial above us, which way the barometer will be heading today, tomorrow, and the day after is difficult to predict. Beware that Global Warming is not a Myth but a Reality.

Acknowledgement: Help received from the write ups of Neelam Raaj & Sujata Dutta and Fellcity Barringer are duly acknowledged.

Dr. Om S. Verma
Chief Editor

(p. i-iv)

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Identification and Acceptability of Linkage Principle and their Implementation n the Promotion of Participatory Extension and Rural Development in South Africa, Duvel, G. H., 1-11.

Gustav H. Duvel
University of Pretoria
0002 Pretoria
South Africa
E-mail: Gustav.duvel@up.ac.za

This paper makes a strong case for the necessity of a community linkage structure, which, as a mouthpiece, represents the client community, coordinates its interest and programs and functions in a partner relationship with the extension service provider(s). Important principles regarding the nature of such a structures were identified by participatory methods and degree to which they are acceptable of supported were assessed in a countrywide survey involving about one-third of all public service extension workers, The survey found wide scale support for the need of the proposed structures as well as for the identified principles. These include a clear differentiation. Between the coordinating and operational functional, and a coordination of development activates as close to the grassroots communities as possible. For coordinated and integrated development a ladder of linkage structures extending form the local community up to district and provincial levels in recommended and it is important that partnerships be maintained and not undermined through amalgamation.

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Performance of Services and Unequal Access to Agricultural Extension: Study case in Ain (France) and Zeeland (Netherlands), Labarthe P., 12-26.

Pierre Labarthe
IRNA UMR SAD-APT
16, Rue Claude Bernard
75231 PARIS cedex 05
France
E-mail: Pierre@lanarthe@inapg.inra.fr

The acknowledgment of the multifunctionnality of agriculture (MFA) sets up agricultural extension at the crossroads between territorial issues and sector-based issues. This should result into a better access to extension services for farms who contribute to other functions of agriculture than primary production. But at the same time, in European countries, agricultural extension is facing major changes in its financial support, such as commercialization and privatization of services. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of the changes on the internal performance of extensions’ suppliers and on directs effects on clients. In this purpose, the conceptual framework or performance of services had been developed. It had been combined with collection of data (both statistical and empirical) about farmers’ consumption of agricultural extension. This framework was tested in the case of technical extension of cereal production in two regions: Ain (France) and Zeeland (Netherlands). The outcomes of the investigation show 1) that privatization and commercialization of services has a strong impact on the performance of services 2) that these performance frameworks could lead to inequalities of for quantitative and qualitative access to technical extension between farmers.

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Sustainable Rangeland Management Using Fuzzy Logic: A new paradigm for rangeland Extensionists, Azadi, H., Shahvali, M., & van den Derg, J., 27-38.

Hossein Azadi, Mansour Shahvali, & Jan van den Derg
Shiraz University
Iran

It is widely recognized that the rangelands of the world are overgrazed. An alternative pattern of use seems to be possible where a balance is defined based on a complete set of involved indicators. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on how to reconcile the ‘consumption’ and ‘conservation’ dichotomy and reach the equilibrium in rangeland management. A five-step process is proposed to enhance rangeland extensionists’ ability to meet this challenge: 1) Elicitation procedure, 2) Fuzzifier, 3) IF-THEN rules, 4) Inference Engine, and 5) Defuzzifier.

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Different Sources and Channels of Echo-sounder Technology Adoption Information Among Captains of Fishing Boats in Boushehr Province of Iran, Rezvanfar, A., & Zaereh, A., 39-52.

Ahmad Rezvanfar, Assistant Professor
Department of Agricultural Extension and Education
Faculty of Agriculture-University of Tehran, Karaj-Iran
E-mail: Arezvan@ut.ac.ir

Adel Zaereh, Department of Extension
Ministry of Jihad-E-Keshavarzy, Tehran-Iran

This study examines fishing boat captains’ use of different channels and sources of adoption process of Echo-sounder technology in Boushehr province of Iran. The main objective of this research was to determine a model to cognition of the role and effectiveness of various sources and channels in different stages of echo-sounder technology decision-making process. To study, a sample of 135 captains were selected using “Proportional Random Sampling’ method. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire that addressed captains; use of various information sources and channels of Echo-sounder technology information in four stages of knowledge, persuasion, decision making and implementation, identified as the adoption stages from the literature. Then they were asked to indicate rate of accessibility and validity of information sources and channels to measuring effectiveness of sources and channel. To measure the rate of adoption of echo-sounder technology, eight functions of this instrument were studied. To measure effectiveness of information sources and channels, opinion measuring and index making method, were used. The criteria like frequency, percentage, mean, mode and standard deviation were calculated. Factor analysis model was used to reduce and classify information sources and channels in respect of their effectiveness. Descriptive finding to model revealed that captains used multiple channels and source when accusing information at different stages of adoption of echo-sounder technology. The results of the factor analysis showed that, information sources and channels could be classified into five categories’ including, local non-profit, provincial cosmopolite, ultra-provincial cosmopolite, and cosmopolite audio-visual channels in respect of the effectiveness of information sources and channels.

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Agricultural Extension and Poverty in Iran: Past, Present, Future, And a Pro-poor Approach, Hayati, D., & Karami, E., 53-68.

Dariush Hayati & Ezatollah Karami
Shiraz University
Iran

The developing countries have given emphasis to extension in the past, and by some indications are investing more in extension effort as compared to the developed countries. The agricultural extension function in Iran in relation to poverty could be separated to three stages-past, present, and future. Its function in the past is reviewed briefly in this article. Then an explanation is given why agricultural extension is in crisis at present. Since the most important World’s challenge is alleviation poverty in the 21st century, an effort is made to explain how agricultural extensions can accommodate itself with new approaches toward poverty alleviation in the future.

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Financing Agricultural Technology Delivery in Nigeria: Would Farmers Be Willing to Pay?, Chukwuone, N. A. & Agwu, A. E., 69-85.

N. A. Chukwuone
Center for Rural Development and Cooperatives
University of Nigeria Nsukka
Enugu State
Nigeria
E-mail: nnachukwuone@yahoo.com

A. E. Agwu
Department of Agricultural Extension
University of Nigeria Nsukka
Enugu State
Nigeria
E-mail: agwuekwe@hotmail.com

Securing a stable funding for agricultural technology delivery had been one of the major problems plaguing agricultural growth and development in Nigeria. Since the cessation of the World Bank counterpart funding arrangement in 1995, financial support for technology delivery by Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) has progressively declined so that most State’s ADP find it difficult to pay salaries of staff and to make allowances for other operating transaction costs involved in technology delivery. Based on the need for improved and expanded agricultural extension activities and with the Nigerian government stance on privatization of some public institutions to ease off funding problems and inefficiency, alternative funding mechanisms for agricultural technology delivery is being explored. Hence, this study ascertained the willingness of farmers in Nigeria to pay for technology delivery services. A sample size of 300 farmers randomly selected from six States, representing each of the geopolitical zones in the country, was used for the study. A structured questionnaire was used in data collection with contingent valuation method precisely, stochastic payment card, employed in ascertaining willingness to pay. Descriptive statistics and profit analysis was used in data analysis. The finding of the study show that the mean amount farmers are willing to pay annually for technology delivery is 330.73. Location of the respondent, income form major occupation, household size and number of years of farming experience significantly influenced willingness to pay. The study recommends phase by phase introduction of user fee into extension operation in Nigeria starting from Northern Nigeria, review of the agricultural pricing policy and facilitating farmers’ access to credit facilities so as to increase their income.

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Technology Transfer Program in Andhra Pradesh, India an Innovative Success Story, Rao Eddu, F., 86-92.

Francis Rao Eddu
109 Chalukya Apartments
Secunderabad, AP 500 026
India
E-mail: franeddu@hotmail.com

Many of the early international development projects between the United States and India focused on Agriculture. In the 1960’s, India was experiencing extreme food shortages due to population growth and drought in several States. The United States offered agricultural expertise that was sorely needed by India to expedite its food/ agriculture production. The Agricultural Production Project in Andhra Pradesh was one of several programs USAID undertook to help transfer agricultural technology that might increase food grain production, including the influence of improved farm implements. This part of the Project evolved into a successful program in reaching thousands of farmers. This article is based upon interview and correspondence with Dr. Layle Lawrence, Professor Emeritus at West Virginia University, and Mr. P. B. Chary, owner and manager of Karshak Industries, located in Hyderabad, AP, India.

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Another Look at Gender Issues in Extension, Freeman, S. R., & Richardson, J. G., 93-101.

Sharon R. Freeman & John G. Richardson
North Carolina State University
USA

Amongst a myriad of issues that face extension throughout the world, one issue appears to be especially relevant for discussion and analysis. That issue relates to gender issues that limit the availability of relevant agricultural information for those persons who actually do a considerable among of the farm labor in many countries. Those persons are women, and this paper addresses some of the relevant facets of this issue, and offers some suggestions for change. It is recognized that many cultural and societal factors come into play as extension work is planned and delivered, albeit often in a limited manner to those who may need to information most. By working toward the recognition of the norms of the society as limiting factors in successful agricultural extension efforts, it is hoped that this can lead towards economic growth, social equity for all member of society. Also, environmental stewardship, and a sustainable flow of quality products for use locally or at a distance could be other positive outcomes.

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