Journal of Extension Systems
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2004, Volume 20(2), December
O. S. Verma, Editorial
A Cross Cultural Comparison of Managerial Competency and Management Style, Rohs, F. R.
Placing Economic Values on Extension Program Impacts for Enhanced Accountability, Richardson, J. G., & Moore, C. L.
Development Support Communication for Community-Driven Development in Africa, Agunga, R., & Fishman, A. K.
China’s Rural Development and The Food Security Challenge, Rivera, W. M.
Perceived Economic Benefits of Participation in Community Extension and Eco-Tourism Activities, Adeleke, B. O., & Ajayi, M. T.
Program Planning in Non-formal Educational Activities for Rural Women: A Case-Study Evaluation in Portugal, Koehnen, T., Baptista, A., & Portela, J.
Job Behavior and Attitudes of Agricultural Faculty; Beyond the Influence of Biographical Factors, Ladebo, O. J.
UNEP Theme: Wanted! Seas & Oceans Dead or Alive
Ocean World is under Threat. Global warming, pollution, oil spills, and harmful fishing practices have started taking a toll on our seas and oceans. A report by the Inter-Governmental panel on climate change (IPCC) concludes that the world’s sea level could rise by as much as 1 metre within just 80 years. It would affect one Billion people living along the coastlines. The UNEP Theme “Wanted! Seas & Oceans, Dead or Alive” on World Environment Day: 5 June – 2004 puts the issues in right perspective. Marine environment is facing challenges and if not addressed immediately and effectively, it will have profound implications for sustainable development. The theme emphasizes that society can no longer view the world sea a convenient dumping ground. Untreated wastewater, air-borne pollution, industrial effluents, silt from water sheds, nitrogen overload from fertilizers all are creating a number of oxygen-starved ‘dead zones’ in coastal waters across the globe. Marine litter is killing millions of seabirds, 1 lakh mammals and turtler each year. Another threat to marine life and human population is pollution. On the World Environment Day, message by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) clearly says that three quarters of the World’s mega cities are located by the sea and 40 percent of the World’s population lives within 60 kms of the coast. Death and disease caused by polluted coastal water costs the global economy $12.8 Billion a year. Rivers that run into the sea carry silt, untreated sewage, industrial waters and assorted rubbish of consumers. All these have made the Eco-systems in crisis. The message behind this year’s World Environment Day theme is clear and simple. We have a choice: act now to save our marine resources or watch the life in our seas & oceans declining beyond the point of recovery. Good news, however, is that there is an increasing global awareness of the crisis our seas & oceans are facing.
Curbing Air Pollution
Problem of air pollution is becoming widespread especially in urban areas. Vehicles are major contributors. High emissions from industries and thermal power plants are of particular importance for curbing air pollution.
Key facts about Seas and Oceans
- Oceans cover 70 percent of the Earth’s surface.
- Forty per cent of the world’s population lives within 60 km of a coast.
- More than 90 per cent of the planet’s living bio mass is found in the oceans.
- Three quarters of the world’s mega cities are by the sea.
- By 2010, 80 per cent of people will live within 100 km of the coast.
- Plastic waste kills up to one million sea birds, 100,000 sea mammals and countless fish each year.
- Sea creatures killed by plastic decompose, the plastic does not. Plastic remains in the ecosystem to kill again and again.
- An estimated 21 barrels of oil run into the oceans each year from street run-off, effluent from factories, and from ships flushing their tanks.
- Over the part decade an average of 600,000 barrels of oil a year has been accidentally spilled from ships, the equivalent of 12 disasters the size of the sinking of the oil tanker Prestige in 2002.
- More than 90 per cent of goods traded between countries are transported by sea.
- Pollution, exotic species and alteration of coastal habitats are a growing threat to important marine ecosystems such as mangroves, sea grass beds and coral reefs.
- The Great Barrier Reef, measuring 2,000 km in length, is the largest living structure on Earth. It can be seen from the Moon.
- Nearly 60 per cent of the world’s remaining reefs are at significant risk of being lost in the next three decades.
- Climate change threatens to destroy the majority of the world’s coral reefs, as well as wreck havoc on the fragile economies of Small Island developing States.
- Average sea level has risen between 10 and 25 cm in the past 100 years. If all the world’s ice milted, the oceans would rise by 66 metres.
- Sixty per cent of the Pacific shoreline and 35 per cent of the Atlantic shoreline are receding at a rate of one metre a year.
- The Plan of Implementation adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) calls for a global marine assessment by 2004 and the development of a global network of of marine protected areas by 2012.
- Less than one-half a per cent of marine habitats are protected compared with 11.5 per cent of global land area.
- The High Seas (areas of the ocean beyond national jurisdiction) cover almost 50 per cent of the Earth’s surface. They are the least protected part of the world.
- Although there are some treaties that protect ocean-going species such as whales, as well as some fisheries agreements, there are no protected areas in the High Seas.
- More than 3.5 billion people depend on the ocean for their primary source of food. In 20 years, this number could double to seven billion.
- More than 70 per cent of the world’s marine fisheries are now fixed up to or beyond their sustainable limit.
- Governments at WSSD agreed, on an urgent basis and where possible by 2015, to maintain or restore depleted fish stocks to levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield.
- The WSD Plan or implementation calls for the elimination of destructive fishing practices and subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing.
- Shrimp farming, too, is highly destructive. It causes chemical and fertiliser pollution of water and has been largely responsible for the destruction of nearly a quarter of the world’s mangroves.
Why do we need seas & oceans alive?
- Oceans cover 70 per cent of earth’s surface.
- Marine eco-system is home to 2/3rd of the World’s biodiversity.
- Oceans & Seas are crucial to human existence being integral part of the hydrological cycle.
- Oceans & Seas meet human need for food, livelihood, energy, transport, and tourism.
- Coral Reefs and Mangroves are home for a rich variety of organisms, contain erosion and minimum impact of Cyclones.
What can we do?
- Reduce, reuse, and recycle plastic and generate minimum plastic wastes.
- Treat the street run-off, effluents from factories so that they do not pollute the seas & oceans.
- Protect and Conserve Mangroves so that they protect our coastlines from cyclones and also provide livelihood to the fishermen.
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A Cross Cultural Comparison of Managerial Competency and Management Style, Rohs, F. R., 1-14.
Rapid social, economic, environmental and technological conditions are challenging Cooperative Extension Systems to respond quickly to change. To foster organizational change, Extension administrators and supervisors will need new management competencies and leadership styles. Managerial Assessment of Proficiency Program (MAP) is a competency-based program allowing Extension Educators to assess their own competency levels and management styles. Data for this descriptive study were collected from Extension personnel in 14 states and compares competency levels and management styles of Extension personnel with data from managers in 14 countries.
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Placing Economic Values on Extension Program Impacts for Enhanced Accountability, Richardson, J. G., & Moore, C. L., 15-31.
Changing trends reflect the desire of policy makers and governments to assure that extension programs produce viable and tangible results. Such results, when communicated as economic benefits, nearly always gain the attention of policy makers, the public, administrators, and the users themselves. Results that are mere descriptions or qualifications tend to be forgotten. Being able to document and defend the economic benefits of these programs are vital for continued public support. This paper presents a rationale for program valuation, ways and means of identifying impacts and describes the various means for placing economic values on program impacts. Twelve different means or methods of placing values on extension programs are presented. Such valuation means may be single or multi-faceted. These twelve methods are: Reduced cost; Increased income; Savings; Increased productivity; Value added; Expected values. Alternative opportunity cost of capital; Willingness to pay; Multiplier effect; How we are better off; Non-market benefits (cost effectiveness); and Indirect values. Each of these means of valuing is described by using actual extension program examples. Some examples of program success stories that involve estimating the economic value of programs are also presented. These success stories and actual program examples are intended to provide extension workers with real world examples of recognizing and reporting the economic value of their successful Extension programs. They also demonstrate the means for selecting appropriate methods for valuing those program successes.
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Development Support Communication for Community-Driven Development in Africa, Agunga, R., & Fishman, A. K., 32-44.
Popular participation was introduced 30 years ago as the key to poverty reduction and community-driven development. For the World Bank, local participation was seen as central to the success of its integrated rural development strategy introduced in 1975. The strategy gave rise to multimillion dollar integrated rural development (IRD) projects in developing countries over the last three decades. Looking back many of these projects have failed and the common finding is that local participation did not occur. The results of a case study of integrated rural development in Ghana confirms that without local participation rural development in Africa will continue to suffer. The paper argues that participation is a communication process and its successful implementation requires the inclusion of development support communication (DSC) professionals in rural development programming. DSC is a new discipline and profession focused on communication needs in development. The paper challenges governments and donor agencies to explore DSC.
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China’s Rural Development and The Food Security Challenge, Rivera, W. M., 45-61.
This paper discusses the challenges China faces regarding food security. Following definitions of food security, the first part reviews international concerns about China’s role in the world food marketplace, underscoring the heightened fears especially during the 1990s, among international observers that China would, in the case of reduced grain supplies, buy up the world market for these basic commodities. The second part reviews China’s national policies toward poverty and food insecurity, and underscores the Government’s successful and impressive reduction of poverty between 1978 and the year 2000. The third part of the paper serves as a caveat, highlighting China’s ominous water and agricultural problems, the pressures affecting their sustainability, and the impact these problems will likely create for rural development and food security in the future.
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Perceived Economic Benefits of Participation in Community Extension and Eco-Tourism Activities, Adeleke, B. O., & Ajayi, M. T., 62-71.
The study investigated the participation in community extension activities, perceived benefits of participation, and reasons for not participating in community extension activities in the Yankari National Park, Nigeria. Participants who were leaders of community-based organizations were randomly selected from ten randomly selected communities yielding a sample of 80 individuals. Findings show that the major occupations of the respondents are hunting, cattle rearing and farming. Respondents’ hunting and cattle rearing activities are often perceived as the reason for conflict with the park system. Extension activities most often reported included: conservation education and the supply of tractors, seed and drugs. Perceived benefits for program participants were improved economic status, increased income, and employment by the park system. Extension contacts most often reported were personal contacts and meetings/exhibits. A majority of study participants (73.7%) felt that the park system decided the extension programs. The level of respondents’ education, sex and occupation had significant correlation with the participation in extension and ecotourism meetings. For a more beneficial and sustainable extension program in the park, a participatory and more educative extension program is recommended.
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Program Planning in Non-formal Educational Activities for Rural Women: A Case-Study Evaluation in Portugal, Koehnen, T., Baptista, A., & Portela, J., 72-88.
The evaluation of a non-formal educational program for rural women was carried out during 2001. The case-study evaluation establishes the relevance for non-formal educational projects (human resource development). The paper focuses on the non-formal educational program planning process, while, at times, diverting from the technology transfer function of rural extension. The project was implemented within a Regional Directorate in the continental Portugal. In the past, the Regional Directorates have had the major responsibility for rural extension in Portugal. The case-study evaluation describes a positive educational program planning process for rural women and identifies considerations for the improvement and duplication to other similar situations.
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Job Behavior and Attitudes of Agricultural Faculty; Beyond the Influence of Biographical Factors, Ladebo, O. J., 89-103.
The effects of personality trait, work centrality, and perceived stress on the research performance and affective commitment of faculty in an agricultural institution were examined. Results indicated that only the biographical factors: age, rank, and sex were related to research performance of the faculty, but were unrelated to affective commitment. But positive affectivity (PA), work centrality, and perceived stress were significantly related to affective commitment. The results imply that a faculty who is high in PA is more likely to develop emotional attachment to the employing institution, while a stressed academic is apt to be less committed to the institution. Intervention should consider the provision of a conducive work environment and a training program aimed at socializing new faculty members into the system and assists the old faculty to readjust to the changes that might be enacted in the institution.
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