Science and technology have profoundly influenced the course of human
civilization. As we stand today at the beginning of the new century, science
promises its unlimited potential to bring revolutionary changes in human lives
for better. The Science & Technology Policy-2003 is a landmark step that will
ensure fullest use of scientific developments for the well-being of the people
and the whole of human kind.
Recognizing the changing context of the scientific enterprise and to meet
present national needs in the new era of globalization, the new Science &
Technology Policy-2003 enunciates several objectives:
Now that the new policy has to give Science a fillip, some of the highlights
need special attention for implementation of the policy document.
- Government budgetary commitments for higher education in Science &
- Industries level of investments at least 2 percent of GDP in S&T
interventions. It must be made a mandatory requirement.
- Science-based Ministries and Government Departments be headed by
Scientists and Technocrats to debureaucratise the Science & Technology
- Establishment of a National level Autonomous Technology Transfer
Organization as an Associate of the Universities and National Institutes of
facilitate transfer of technical know-how.
- Intensification of Research on indigenous knowledge in all pursuits of
Science & Technology and manage Intellectual Property Rights to protect
discoveries and technological innovations therein.
- International Science & Technology cooperation between National
Institutions in Indian and their counterparts overseas.
- An apex Science & Technology Advisory Body to sub serve the policy
- Creation of World Class facilities in a few nationally relevant fields to
enhance international competitiveness.
- An effective, expeditious, and transparent Science-based monitoring and
reviewing mechanisms in all the Ministries dealing with Science & Technology.
- Privatization of Scientific & Technological research by way of involving
professional bodies, associations, societies and registered companies dealing
with Science & Technology.
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Using a Soft
Systems Approach to Plan an Extension Program, Frederick R. Rohs,
Stanley E. Prussia, Ceasar I. Beristain, & Josue Cortes, 1-12.
Problems associated with the
purpose, design and implementation of an extension program can be
overwhelming for those who lack the theoretical background and experience
in Extension Program Development. Checklandís Soft System Methodologies (SSM)
is a simple seven step process that can guide individuals through this,
sometimes confusing, process. A case study using the Soft Systems Method
illustrates the successful use of it in designing a major Extension
Program. This system helps to ensure that all relevant parties affected by
the problem situation are involved in the planning, design and
implementation phases of programming.
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Impact of Different
Agricultural Extension Systems on Farmers in Nigeria,
D. Okey Chikwendu, 13-21.
A study was conducted in 1997 in six states
representing South-east and North-west agro-ecological zones of the
country to determine the impact of different extension systems. Both
descriptive and quantitative statistical tools were employed in data
analysis. The results indicate that the Training and Visit system employed
by the government extension agency impacted less than the participatory
system used by Non-governmental organizations (NGOs and private extension
agencies (PAE) in terms of positive changes in cropping pattern, food
quality, farm income, crop yield, livestock productivity and number of
livestock. Farmers involved in the NGOs/PAE system had higher income from
both livestock and crop production than those involved in the public
extension system. Further analysis showed that being an NGOs/PAE system
farmer was more strongly correlated to income from livestock and crop
production and crop yield than a contact or non-contact farmer under the
public operated T & V system. Constraints to effective extension delivery
within the systems were also identified. The study concludes with
recommending that the participatory extension system used by the NGOs/PAE
should be incorporated into the public extension system.
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Studentsí Perceptions of
Philosophical Foundations in Agricultural and Extension Education,
Gary J. Wingenbach, & Gregory A. Cummings,
Agriculture students (N=163) reported their
perceptions of five knowledge bases and six professional opportunities
encompassing a model for agricultural and extension education. Respondents
agreed with the philosophical bases, suggesting congruence between
studentsí perceptions and a departmentís theoretical framework for guiding
the teaching, research, and outreach processes. Most students identified
future careers in Leadership Education (n=69). Significant
differences existed in selected knowledge bases and professional
opportunities when compared by gender and race. Female students rated the
knowledge base, Evaluation and Accountability, and the professional
opportunities, Extension Education and Agriculture Science Teacher,
significantly higher than did males. Black students rated the professional
opportunity Leadership Education significantly lower than did Hispanics or
Caucasians. Additional research using other studentsí and/or faculty
membersí perceptions of the theoretical frameworks under-girding
agricultural and extension education at other universities, or other
countriesí models, will enhance our understanding of the principles that
guide our profession.
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Affecting the Implementation
of Post-training Action
Plan by Training
Adekunle A. A., Adeleye O., M. O. Adekunle, O. Obembe,
Capacity Building for Decentralized Development, an
agency of the Department of International Development (DFID), conducted a
series of training and capacity building programs under their Technical
Capacity Building Program. For each of these programs, participants were
asked to develop action plans, which many of them implemented after the
training. After consultants had conducted monitoring visits to the
participants in their various stations to ascertain the level of
implementation of action plans, eighteen of them were invited to a review
meeting where factors that affected the implementation of action plans
were validated. Facilitators used a modified story board to enable
participants provide information on factors that affected the
implementation of action plans. Responses from participants were validated
by subjecting them to pairwise or forced ranking. Responses showed that
relevance and acceptability of the concept of the plan to the target
group, benefit of the plan to the organization, and skills acquired during
training were important factors that favor the implementation of action
plans. Other factors that the participants mentioned as favoring the
implementation of action plans included the availability of materials to
use for the plan, backstopping by training providers and support from
fellow beneficiaries. Invariably, absence of these factors will hinder
implementation of plans but specifically, participants mentioned lack of
finance and equipment to use for the implementation of the action plans as
the more important factors that hindered the implementation of action
plans. The implications of these were discussed.
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Communication Competencies and Human Resource Management Performance of
County Extension Chairs, James R.
This study described county chairsí
self-reported perceptions of their communication competencies and
performance of human resource management activities and whether increases
or decreases in one of the variables were associated with increases or
decreases in the other variable. A census of Ohio State University
Extension county chairs was conducted. Data for the study were collected
by mailed questionnaire. Study findings provide evidence of the validity,
and for the use of communication competencies as a selection and
development tool for county Chairs. Findings further support a substantial
association between competencies and activities. County chairs that
reported higher communication competency scores had significantly higher
human resource management activity scores.
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Constraints to the Increased
Fishing Productivity of Women in Rural and Peri-urban Settings of Lagos
State, Nigeria, Oloruntoba, A., & Fakoya,
E. O, 60-71.
Data from 150 fisher women representative of rural
and peri-urban coastal area of Lagos State, Nigeria reveal that more
productive fisheries potentials are being impeded by notable constraints
which include low extension contact, lack of skill in net construction,
lack of micro credit, inadequate processing equipment, poor storage
facilities and high input costs. However, women in rural setting appear to
have a relatively higher mean level of fishing constraints than those in
peri-urban. Clearly, these differences may shape women fisherfolks
expectations in terms of income generating opportunities for the future.
The results have policy implications for fisheries extension delivery
system. Recommendations are made to bridge the gaps to enhance sustainable
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Gender Sensitization: Women
Empowerment, O. S. Verma,
Development of women living in rural areas has to be
seen in terms of their empowerment status. Although there have been
greater investments in the Development Plans for women empowerment, their
strength of power in making decisions is still low even over their own
bodies and lives. The current focus on women empowerment is through
literacy, through political reservation, and empowerment through social
and economic activities.
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Small Farmersí Perception of the
Characteristics of New Farm Practices in Ogun State, Nigeria,
Adebayo, K., Omotayo, A. M., Garforth, C. J., & Awotunde, M.,
The process of technology generation has been
described as important in the adoption of new practices by small farmers
in developing countries. The level of involvement of farmers in the
technology development process is therefore a central issue among those
involved in the promotion of new farm practices. This study used data from
a sample of 77 small farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria to explore farmersí
perception of the characteristics of new farm practices with a view to
highlighting the specific attributes that may influence farm technology
adoption. Besides describing the general perception of the characteristics
of new farm practices by the farmers, Chi square(X2) analysis was done to
test the null hypotheses that farmersí perception of innovation
characteristics is independent of their adoption of new farm practices and
other intervening variables. It was found that farmers were willing to
discuss innovations that were high in relative advantage, moderately
compatible to existing practice, yet low in risk and complexity. The
findings of this study seem to corroborate the prevailing belief that
small farmers are inhibited by the risk involved and complexity of an
innovation in their adoption decisions. But it also emphasizes the fact
the relationship between adoption of innovations and the characteristics
of new farm practices is dynamic, complex and may involve one or more
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Sources of Information of Improved
Technologies Adopted by Farmers: A Study of Farmers in Akinyele Local
Government of Oyo State, Nigeria,
Michael Tunde Ajayi, 94-103.
The study identified various sources of information
of improved technologies and use of the information by farmers in Akinyele
Local Government of Oyo State, Nigeria. Relationships between selected
socio-economic characters and the use of information were also determined.
A total of 200 farmers from four randomly selected villages were surveyed
through personal interview. The findings of the study showed that most
farmers use the on-farm trials carried out by the International Institute
of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in the village as a source of information.
The use of friends was the second popular source of information.
Significant relationships were obtained between the use of IITA as a
source of information and some farmersí socio-economic factors such as
education, size of farm and number of years of farming. It was suggested
that change agents should endeavor to make sources of information of
improved technologies accessible to farmers and encourage participatory
extension strategy with farmers.
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Increasing the Ability of
Farmers to Compete in the Market, A. W.
van den Ban, 104-115.
Competition among farmers is increasing. There are
large differences between countries in labour productivity in agriculture,
and in the rate of change in this productivity. This has resulted in a
decrease in prices of farm products. Only those farmers who manage to
increase their productivity more than that of their competitors will be
able to continue to earn a living from farming. In this process, extension
service have two roles (1) helping farmers to increase their productivity,
and (2) helping farm families, who are no longer able to compete, to find
other sources of income. The first role requires considerable attention to
developments in the markets. The second role has received little
attention, although it is important for the welfare of the family.
However, in countries with a limited growth outside agriculture, it is
difficult to perform this role adequately.
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