Journal of Extension Systems

Home Current Issue Archive Board Members

Article
reprints (US $5/each) may be obtained by contacting the
Academic Editor.

horizontal rule

2002, Volume 18(2), December

O. S. Verma, Editorial

  1. Using a Soft Systems Approach to Plan an Extension Program, Frederick R. Rohs, Stanley E. Prussia, Ceasar I. Beristain, & Josue Cortes.

  2. Impact of Different Agricultural Extension Systems on Farmers in Nigeria, D. Okey Chikwendu.

  3. Studentsí Perceptions of Philosophical Foundations in Agricultural and Extension Education, Gary J. Wingenbach, & Gregory A. Cummings.

  4. Non-participant Factors Affecting the Implementation of Post-training Action Plan by Training Participants, Adekunle A. A., Adeleye O., M. O. Adekunle, O. Obembe.

  5. Relationship Between Communication Competencies and Human Resource Management Performance of County Extension Chairs, James R. Lindner.

  6. Constraints to the Increased Fishing Productivity of Women in Rural and Peri-urban Settings of Lagos State, Nigeria, Oloruntoba, A., & Fakoya, E. O.

  7. Gender Sensitization: Women Empowerment, O. S. Verma.

  8. Small Farmersí Perception of the Characteristics of New Farm Practices in Ogun State, Nigeria, Adebayo, K., Omotayo, A. M., Garforth, C. J., & Awotunde, M.

  9. Sources of Information of Improved Technologies Adopted by Farmers: A Study of Farmers in Akinyele Local Government of Oyo State, Nigeria, Michael Tunde Ajayi.

  10. Increasing the Ability of Farmers to Compete in the Market, A. W. van den Ban.

horizontal rule

Science and Technology Policy-2003 for a
New and Resurgent India Science for Quality Life

Science and technology have profoundly influenced the course of human civilization. As we stand today at the beginning of the new century, science promises its unlimited potential to bring revolutionary changes in human lives for better. The Science & Technology Policy-2003 is a landmark step that will ensure fullest use of scientific developments for the well-being of the people and the whole of human kind.

OBJECTIVE
To bring Prosperity, Dignity & Peace

Recognizing the changing context of the scientific enterprise and to meet present national needs in the new era of globalization, the new Science & Technology Policy-2003 enunciates several objectives:

Key Policy Objectives:

bulletAdvancing scientific temper for a progressive and enlightened society ensuring its full integration with all spheres of national activity.
bulletEnsuring food, agricultural, nutritional, environmental, water and energy security of the people on sustainable basis.
bulletPromoting empowerment of women to all science and technology activities, ensuring their full and equal participation.
bulletProviding functional autonomy and freedom to all academic and R & D institutions to encourage ambience for creative work.
bulletStrengthening enabling mechanisms that relate to technology development, evaluation, absorption and upgradation from concept to utilization.
bulletAccomplishing national strategy and security related objectives by using the latest S & T advances.

STRATEGY
That will achieve results in a time-bound programme

With clear focus on efficiency, speed and productivity by identifying specific plans, programmes and projects with clearly defined tasks and estimates of necessary resources, the Science & Technology Polcy-2003 will be implemented in a time bound regime.

Key Policy Strategies

bulletEvolving a mechanism to make S & T persons an integral part of the planning and implementation of all S & T programmes at all levels.
bulletStrengthening of S & T infrastructure in academic institutions by selecting significant institutions for support.
bulletSetting up new funding mechanisms for promoting basic research in science.
bulletStrengthening measures to increase the rate of generation of high quality skilled human resource at all levels.
bulletEnsuring synergy between scientific and industrial research, facilitating transfer of technology and encouraging indigenous R & D in the industry.
bulletHarnessing indigenous knowledge for wealth and employment generation.

Now that the new policy has to give Science a fillip, some of the highlights need special attention for implementation of the policy document.

  1. Government budgetary commitments for higher education in Science & Technology.
  2. Industries level of investments at least 2 percent of GDP in S&T interventions. It must be made a mandatory requirement.
  3. Science-based Ministries and Government Departments be headed by Scientists and Technocrats to debureaucratise the Science & Technology Institutions.
  4. Establishment of a National level Autonomous Technology Transfer Organization as an Associate of the Universities and National Institutes of facilitate transfer of technical know-how.
  5. Intensification of Research on indigenous knowledge in all pursuits of Science & Technology and manage Intellectual Property Rights to protect discoveries and technological innovations therein.
  6. International Science & Technology cooperation between National Institutions in Indian and their counterparts overseas.
  7. An apex Science & Technology Advisory Body to sub serve the policy objectives.
  8. Creation of World Class facilities in a few nationally relevant fields to enhance international competitiveness.
  9. An effective, expeditious, and transparent Science-based monitoring and reviewing mechanisms in all the Ministries dealing with Science & Technology.
  10. Privatization of Scientific & Technological research by way of involving professional bodies, associations, societies and registered companies dealing with Science & Technology.

Back to Top

horizontal rule

Using a Soft Systems Approach to Plan an Extension Program, Frederick R. Rohs, Stanley E. Prussia, Ceasar I. Beristain, & Josue Cortes, 1-12.

Problems associated with the purpose, design and implementation of an extension program can be overwhelming for those who lack the theoretical background and experience in Extension Program Development. Checklandís Soft System Methodologies (SSM) is a simple seven step process that can guide individuals through this, sometimes confusing, process. A case study using the Soft Systems Method illustrates the successful use of it in designing a major Extension Program. This system helps to ensure that all relevant parties affected by the problem situation are involved in the planning, design and implementation phases of programming.

Back to Top

horizontal rule

Impact of Different Agricultural Extension Systems on Farmers in Nigeria, D. Okey Chikwendu, 13-21.

A study was conducted in 1997 in six states representing South-east and North-west agro-ecological zones of the country to determine the impact of different extension systems. Both descriptive and quantitative statistical tools were employed in data analysis. The results indicate that the Training and Visit system employed by the government extension agency impacted less than the participatory system used by Non-governmental organizations (NGOs and private extension agencies (PAE) in terms of positive changes in cropping pattern, food quality, farm income, crop yield, livestock productivity and number of livestock. Farmers involved in the NGOs/PAE system had higher income from both livestock and crop production than those involved in the public extension system. Further analysis showed that being an NGOs/PAE system farmer was more strongly correlated to income from livestock and crop production and crop yield than a contact or non-contact farmer under the public operated T & V system. Constraints to effective extension delivery within the systems were also identified. The study concludes with recommending that the participatory extension system used by the NGOs/PAE should be incorporated into the public extension system.

Back to Top

horizontal rule

Studentsí Perceptions of Philosophical Foundations in Agricultural and Extension Education, Gary J. Wingenbach, & Gregory A. Cummings, 22-34.

Agriculture students (N=163) reported their perceptions of five knowledge bases and six professional opportunities encompassing a model for agricultural and extension education. Respondents agreed with the philosophical bases, suggesting congruence between studentsí perceptions and a departmentís theoretical framework for guiding the teaching, research, and outreach processes. Most students identified future careers in Leadership Education (n=69). Significant differences existed in selected knowledge bases and professional opportunities when compared by gender and race. Female students rated the knowledge base, Evaluation and Accountability, and the professional opportunities, Extension Education and Agriculture Science Teacher, significantly higher than did males. Black students rated the professional opportunity Leadership Education significantly lower than did Hispanics or Caucasians. Additional research using other studentsí and/or faculty membersí perceptions of the theoretical frameworks under-girding agricultural and extension education at other universities, or other countriesí models, will enhance our understanding of the principles that guide our profession.

Back to Top

horizontal rule

Non-participant Factors Affecting the Implementation of Post-training Action Plan by Training Participants, Adekunle A. A., Adeleye O., M. O. Adekunle, O. Obembe, 35-48.

Capacity Building for Decentralized Development, an agency of the Department of International Development (DFID), conducted a series of training and capacity building programs under their Technical Capacity Building Program. For each of these programs, participants were asked to develop action plans, which many of them implemented after the training. After consultants had conducted monitoring visits to the participants in their various stations to ascertain the level of implementation of action plans, eighteen of them were invited to a review meeting where factors that affected the implementation of action plans were validated. Facilitators used a modified story board to enable participants provide information on factors that affected the implementation of action plans. Responses from participants were validated by subjecting them to pairwise or forced ranking. Responses showed that relevance and acceptability of the concept of the plan to the target group, benefit of the plan to the organization, and skills acquired during training were important factors that favor the implementation of action plans. Other factors that the participants mentioned as favoring the implementation of action plans included the availability of materials to use for the plan, backstopping by training providers and support from fellow beneficiaries. Invariably, absence of these factors will hinder implementation of plans but specifically, participants mentioned lack of finance and equipment to use for the implementation of the action plans as the more important factors that hindered the implementation of action plans. The implications of these were discussed.

Back to Top

horizontal rule

Relationship Between Communication Competencies and Human Resource Management Performance of County Extension Chairs, James R. Lindner, 49-59.

This study described county chairsí self-reported perceptions of their communication competencies and performance of human resource management activities and whether increases or decreases in one of the variables were associated with increases or decreases in the other variable. A census of Ohio State University Extension county chairs was conducted. Data for the study were collected by mailed questionnaire. Study findings provide evidence of the validity, and for the use of communication competencies as a selection and development tool for county Chairs. Findings further support a substantial association between competencies and activities. County chairs that reported higher communication competency scores had significantly higher human resource management activity scores.

Back to Top

horizontal rule

Constraints to the Increased Fishing Productivity of Women in Rural and Peri-urban Settings of Lagos State, Nigeria, Oloruntoba, A., & Fakoya, E. O, 60-71.

Data from 150 fisher women representative of rural and peri-urban coastal area of Lagos State, Nigeria reveal that more productive fisheries potentials are being impeded by notable constraints which include low extension contact, lack of skill in net construction, lack of micro credit, inadequate processing equipment, poor storage facilities and high input costs. However, women in rural setting appear to have a relatively higher mean level of fishing constraints than those in peri-urban. Clearly, these differences may shape women fisherfolks expectations in terms of income generating opportunities for the future. The results have policy implications for fisheries extension delivery system. Recommendations are made to bridge the gaps to enhance sustainable fisheries production.

Back to Top

horizontal rule

Gender Sensitization: Women Empowerment, O. S. Verma, 72-78.

Development of women living in rural areas has to be seen in terms of their empowerment status. Although there have been greater investments in the Development Plans for women empowerment, their strength of power in making decisions is still low even over their own bodies and lives. The current focus on women empowerment is through literacy, through political reservation, and empowerment through social and economic activities.

Back to Top

horizontal rule

Small Farmersí Perception of the Characteristics of New Farm Practices in Ogun State, Nigeria, Adebayo, K., Omotayo, A. M., Garforth, C. J., & Awotunde, M., 79-93.

The process of technology generation has been described as important in the adoption of new practices by small farmers in developing countries. The level of involvement of farmers in the technology development process is therefore a central issue among those involved in the promotion of new farm practices. This study used data from a sample of 77 small farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria to explore farmersí perception of the characteristics of new farm practices with a view to highlighting the specific attributes that may influence farm technology adoption. Besides describing the general perception of the characteristics of new farm practices by the farmers, Chi square(X2) analysis was done to test the null hypotheses that farmersí perception of innovation characteristics is independent of their adoption of new farm practices and other intervening variables. It was found that farmers were willing to discuss innovations that were high in relative advantage, moderately compatible to existing practice, yet low in risk and complexity. The findings of this study seem to corroborate the prevailing belief that small farmers are inhibited by the risk involved and complexity of an innovation in their adoption decisions. But it also emphasizes the fact the relationship between adoption of innovations and the characteristics of new farm practices is dynamic, complex and may involve one or more intervening variables.

Back to Top

horizontal rule

Sources of Information of Improved Technologies Adopted by Farmers: A Study of Farmers in Akinyele Local Government of Oyo State, Nigeria, Michael Tunde Ajayi, 94-103.

The study identified various sources of information of improved technologies and use of the information by farmers in Akinyele Local Government of Oyo State, Nigeria. Relationships between selected socio-economic characters and the use of information were also determined. A total of 200 farmers from four randomly selected villages were surveyed through personal interview. The findings of the study showed that most farmers use the on-farm trials carried out by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in the village as a source of information. The use of friends was the second popular source of information. Significant relationships were obtained between the use of IITA as a source of information and some farmersí socio-economic factors such as education, size of farm and number of years of farming. It was suggested that change agents should endeavor to make sources of information of improved technologies accessible to farmers and encourage participatory extension strategy with farmers.

Back to Top

horizontal rule

Increasing the Ability of Farmers to Compete in the Market, A. W. van den Ban, 104-115.

Competition among farmers is increasing. There are large differences between countries in labour productivity in agriculture, and in the rate of change in this productivity. This has resulted in a decrease in prices of farm products. Only those farmers who manage to increase their productivity more than that of their competitors will be able to continue to earn a living from farming. In this process, extension service have two roles (1) helping farmers to increase their productivity, and (2) helping farm families, who are no longer able to compete, to find other sources of income. The first role requires considerable attention to developments in the markets. The second role has received little attention, although it is important for the welfare of the family. However, in countries with a limited growth outside agriculture, it is difficult to perform this role adequately.

Back to Top
 

Home Current Issue Archive Board Members

horizontal rule

Copyright© by Journal of Extension Systems, ISSN 0970-2989.
Send mail to the Chief Editor with questions or comments about this site.
Last modified: 30 January 2017

horizontal rule