Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
2000, Volume 16(1), June
B. Baryeh, Edward Ntifo-Siaw and Edward A. Baryeh.
of Cassava Processing Technology by Women in Ghana.
O. Apantaku and E.O. Fakoya. Influence
of Community Based Associations in Promoting Community Development in Rural
Areas of South-Western Nigeria.
Blum and Moshe Katz. Dairy
Farmers’ Use of Different Knowledge Sources.
Led Participatory Extension Education – Five ‘P’s Model.
Fei and Takeya Hiroyuki. Fee-charging
Extension In China: Implications and Function.
Nelly Raditoloaneng. An Assessment of
Botswana’s Extension System in Poverty Alleviation.
Felsing, Graham Haylor,
Anna Lawrence and Pat Norrish. Reaching
the rural poor developing a strategy for the promotion and dissemination of
participatory aquaculture research: A case study from Eastern India.
J. Squire. Factors Influencing Traditional Farmers
to Adopt Improved Food Crop Production Technologies in Bo District of
Southern Sierra Leone.
The Journal of Extension Systems in now on the Web! Through the courtesy and
many hours of work by my colleague, Dr. Gary Wingenbach, Assistant Professor of
Agricultural & Environmental Education at West Virginia University, who is
now at Mississippi State University, the JES is out in cyberspace for anyone
throughout the world to access through the World Wide Web. Just click on to http://www.jesonline.org
to observe one of the marvels of the electronic age.
The web page contains information regarding subscriptions and article
submission, and allows the user several choices. One can click on “Current
Issue” and find the table of contents of the most recently published issue,
the editorial, and the abstract of each article. Clicking on “Archives”
allows the computer operator to find the table of contents, the editorial, and
the abstracts in each issue since the Journal was initiated in 1985. To note
those responsible for editorial policy of the Journal, the operator can click on
“Board Members” and find a listing of editorial board members and their
addresses. For convenience, one can also click on to the words, Chief Editor,
Academic Editor, or the
Web Editor to find
postal and e-mail addresses of those individuals.
Although the web site is not yet identified on common search engines such as
Yahoo or Alto Vista, when that has been done (in the near future), a student or
an extension worker in Malaysia or Tanzania, for example, who is unaware of the
existence of the JES might use the search engine to find information
about extension. Among the entries listed will be “Welcome to the Journal of
Extension Systems,” which can then be accessed. The individual can then browse
through the information described above. If hard copies of entire articles from
past issues are needed, the web page notes that they are available from the
chief editor, or the web editor.
Through means of a web site, information regarding the Journal is readily
available to anyone in the world whose computer is connected to the internet. We
hope and anticipate that the web site will increase subscriptions and article
submissions to the Journal.
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Assessment of Cassava Processing Technology by Women in Ghana, Afia B.
Baryeh, Edward Ntifo-Siaw and Edward A. Baryeh, 1-22.
manual processing of cassava in Ghana has many disadvantages. A cassava slicing
machine, which overcomes the disadvantages of the traditional manual slicing,
has been developed by the industrial Research Institute. The technology has been
transferred to many women engaged in cassava processing in the country. The
effectiveness of the transfer, the constraints, the availability of funds and
incentives, source of financing, benefits, inputs availability, interest and use
of local materials of the technology has been studied on 50 women fish smokers
in the Awuta Effutu Senya District of the Central Region of Ghana. The study
revealed that the technology transfer was effective and appropriate. Credit
facilities, input availability and input cost were the major constraints. They,
however, benefited from increased knowledge, increase in quantity, quality and
shelf life of product, and increased cooperation with extension agents. Despite
the constraints, the women like the technology.
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Influence of Community Based Associations in Promoting Community
Development in Rural Areas of South-Western Nigeria, Samson O. Apantaku
and E.O. Fakoya, 23-38.
objectives of the study were to review and discuss current literature on the
objectives, characteristics and classification of CBAs in Southwest Nigeria,
identify the roles of CBAs, investigate their mode of operation, determine the
proportion of development projects targeted, completed and uncompleted, and
identify the constraints of the CBAs. Data were collected through the review of
secondary data, researchers’ personal observation, contact and unstructured
interview. Results indicated that objectives of CBAs centre were on selfless and
overall development of their communities. Most of the projects targeted were
completed, especially when their constraints were taken into consideration. Some
of the completed projects were road rehabilitation and construction, rural
electrification, environmental sanitation, health care and water provision. The
problems identified included high cost of materials for executing the projects,
insufficient funds and inability to obtain enough loans for projects. Since the
overall development of rural communities influences agrarian life and rural
agricultural development and marketing, it is recommended, among others, that
government should reorganize its Community Development Unit to give adequate
technical assistance and train the CBAs on how to achieve their objectives
sustainably. Recognition (Awards) should be formally given to CBAs that have
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Dairy Farmers’ Use of Different
Knowledge Sources, Abraham Blum and Moshe Katz, 39-46.
survey was conducted on the extent to which three different types of dairy
farmers use written and verbal information sources. The most important written
source of information was the Dairy Farmers’ Magazine. Extension workers were
the most important verbal source. The frequency of dairy farmers’ use of the
different information sources was correlated mainly with their level of
agricultural education. This was found to be an important factor explaining why
the milk yield in Kibbutzim is higher than that on family farms. Better educated
farmers sought more information extension, but they followed the advice
received, less than those with less agricultural education.
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Farmers’ Led participatory Extension Education – Five ‘P’ Model,
Ranjit Singh, 47-57.
the existing model, major emphasis is laid on giving knowledge to the clients.
It has been seen that it is of no use to improve the knowledge base for a
particular activity without examining the specific work situation and the degree
of freedom available to act on that information. Programmes should be those
which help people to stand on their own feet, that genuinely encourage
responsibility, initiative, decision making and self-reliance. The present model
known as the Five ‘P’ model of participation consists of the following
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Fee-Charging Extension In China: Implications and Function, Xu Fei
and Takeya Hiroyuki, 58-67.
article addresses an effort to evaluate sustainable vitality and adaptability of
Fee-Charging Extension (FCE) in China. Special focus is on the Technical
Contract Approach (TCA), a major wing of the FCE. Features of TCA are
distinguished from extension privatization by analyzing the fee distribution.
This article identifies that TCA functions principally to establish an incentive
mechanism both to extension technicians and to farmers, which leads to an
increase in adoption of technology. Well-developed FCE is useful to China.
Experiences of FCE featuring TCA may also be helpful for reference to other
developing countries with small-scale farming, where extension organizations are
troubled by lack of funds and low efficiency in activities.
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An Assessment of Botswana’s
Extension System in Poverty Alleviation, Wapula Nelly Raditloaneng,
paper is an analysis of Botswana’s eight ministries multi-sectoral extension
system. The country has three main delivery modes of adult education—adult
basic education, extension and continuing education. Extension work entails a
movement from a government of certainty (centralized, government bureaucracy) to
uncertainty (decentralized, community). No formal evaluation of extension has
been done in Botswana. Based on an analysis of theoretical, empirical and
interventive research on extension in Botswana, this paper argues that while
extension work is a crucial component of dissemination of power in different
ministries, there are inherent constraints in the provision of extension
services. These need to be addressed to enhance the quality of Botswana’s
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Reaching rural poor developing a strategy for the promotion and
dissemination of participatory aquaculture research: A case study from Eastern
India, Malene Felsing, Graham Haylor, Anna Lawrence
and Pat Norrish, 82-106.
paper reports on the development of a communication dissemination strategy for
aquaculture recommendations resulting from participatory research in eastern
India. It focuses on the rural poor who have limited access to resources and no
effective aquaculture extension support. Important matters in relation to access
to extension message include socio economics issues, access to TV and radio
receivers, literacy levels, and language. The paper shows the relative
accessibility of different types of media (video and audiocassettes, posters and
leaflets) is presented and costed in three stages, together with a design
checklist. The importance of links between research and development in the
context of extension is discussed.
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Factors Influencing Traditional
Farmers to Adopt Improved Food Crop Production Technologies in Bo District of
Southern Sierra Leone, P. J. Squire, 107-116.
The purpose of the study was to
determine the factors that influence farmers to adopt food crop production
technologies in the Bo District of Southern Sierra Leone. The specific
objectives were to: (1) describe the demographic characteristics of traditional
arable crop farmers; (2) determine the perceptions of farmers regarding the
factors that influence them to adopt the improved arable crop production
technologies; and (3) describe farmers’ attitudes toward the agricultural
communication media. Data was collected by face-to-face interview method with
the aid of a structured interview schedule. The findings indicated that a
majority of the farmers were 38 years and above, female, married, illiterate,
had more than four dependents, and hold the status of head of household. The
farmers were influenced to adopt the improved arable crop production
technologies by other farmers, the characteristics of the new crops, and by
mechanical, draught animal, fertilizer, row planting, and weed and disease
control technologies. Farmers agreed strongly about the usefulness of the
agricultural technology communication media in being helpful to all farmers,
giving useful farming information, providing a basis for decision making, and in
reaching all farming communities in time. Farmers agreed slightly with the
usefulness of agricultural technologies communication media in making farmers
set achievable goals, enabling farmers to do a better job of farming maximizing
farm productivity, and in helping farmers to put pieces of information together
to solve problems. It was recommended that: (1) Farmers be involved in
agricultural technology development as they will have to make final decisions to
adopt or to reject the technology; (2) Farmers be trained in extension methods
as they influence more farmers to adopt field crop production technologies, and
(3) Appropriate farm inputs, promote the exchange of information between farmers
and help farmers try new farming technologies.
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