Journal of Extension Systems

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2000, Volume 16(1), June

Layle D. Lawrence, Editorial

  1. Afia B. Baryeh, Edward Ntifo-Siaw and Edward A. Baryeh. Assessment of Cassava Processing Technology by Women in Ghana.

  2. Samson O. Apantaku and E.O. Fakoya. Influence of Community Based Associations in Promoting Community Development in Rural Areas of South-Western Nigeria.

  3. Abraham Blum and Moshe Katz. Dairy Farmers’ Use of Different Knowledge Sources.

  4. Ranjit Singh. Farmer’s Led Participatory Extension Education – Five ‘P’s Model.

  5. Xu Fei and Takeya Hiroyuki. Fee-charging Extension In China: Implications and Function.

  6. Wapula Nelly Raditoloaneng. An Assessment of Botswana’s Extension System in Poverty Alleviation.

  7. Malene Felsing, Graham Haylor, Anna Lawrence and Pat Norrish. Reaching the rural poor developing a strategy for the promotion and dissemination of participatory aquaculture research: A case study from Eastern India.

  8. P. J. Squire. Factors Influencing Traditional Farmers to Adopt Improved Food Crop Production Technologies in Bo District of Southern Sierra Leone.

 

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A Web Site for the Journal of Extension Systems

The Journal of Extension Systems in now on the Web! Through the courtesy and many hours of work by my colleague, Dr. Gary Wingenbach, Assistant Professor of Agricultural & Environmental Education at West Virginia University, who is now at Mississippi State University, the JES is out in cyberspace for anyone throughout the world to access through the World Wide Web. Just click on to http://www.jesonline.org to observe one of the marvels of the electronic age.

The web page contains information regarding subscriptions and article submission, and allows the user several choices. One can click on “Current Issue” and find the table of contents of the most recently published issue, the editorial, and the abstract of each article. Clicking on “Archives” allows the computer operator to find the table of contents, the editorial, and the abstracts in each issue since the Journal was initiated in 1985. To note those responsible for editorial policy of the Journal, the operator can click on “Board Members” and find a listing of editorial board members and their addresses. For convenience, one can also click on to the words, Chief Editor, Academic Editor, or the Web Editor to find postal and e-mail addresses of those individuals.

Although the web site is not yet identified on common search engines such as Yahoo or Alto Vista, when that has been done (in the near future), a student or an extension worker in Malaysia or Tanzania, for example, who is unaware of the existence of the JES might use the search engine to find information about extension. Among the entries listed will be “Welcome to the Journal of Extension Systems,” which can then be accessed. The individual can then browse through the information described above. If hard copies of entire articles from past issues are needed, the web page notes that they are available from the chief editor, or the web editor.

Through means of a web site, information regarding the Journal is readily available to anyone in the world whose computer is connected to the internet. We hope and anticipate that the web site will increase subscriptions and article submissions to the Journal.

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Assessment of Cassava Processing Technology by Women in Ghana, Afia B. Baryeh, Edward Ntifo-Siaw and Edward A. Baryeh, 1-22.

Traditional manual processing of cassava in Ghana has many disadvantages. A cassava slicing machine, which overcomes the disadvantages of the traditional manual slicing, has been developed by the industrial Research Institute. The technology has been transferred to many women engaged in cassava processing in the country. The effectiveness of the transfer, the constraints, the availability of funds and incentives, source of financing, benefits, inputs availability, interest and use of local materials of the technology has been studied on 50 women fish smokers in the Awuta Effutu Senya District of the Central Region of Ghana. The study revealed that the technology transfer was effective and appropriate. Credit facilities, input availability and input cost were the major constraints. They, however, benefited from increased knowledge, increase in quantity, quality and shelf life of product, and increased cooperation with extension agents. Despite the constraints, the women like the technology.

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Influence of Community Based Associations in Promoting Community Development in Rural Areas of South-Western Nigeria, Samson O. Apantaku and E.O. Fakoya, 23-38.

The objectives of the study were to review and discuss current literature on the objectives, characteristics and classification of CBAs in Southwest Nigeria, identify the roles of CBAs, investigate their mode of operation, determine the proportion of development projects targeted, completed and uncompleted, and identify the constraints of the CBAs. Data were collected through the review of secondary data, researchers’ personal observation, contact and unstructured interview. Results indicated that objectives of CBAs centre were on selfless and overall development of their communities. Most of the projects targeted were completed, especially when their constraints were taken into consideration. Some of the completed projects were road rehabilitation and construction, rural electrification, environmental sanitation, health care and water provision. The problems identified included high cost of materials for executing the projects, insufficient funds and inability to obtain enough loans for projects. Since the overall development of rural communities influences agrarian life and rural agricultural development and marketing, it is recommended, among others, that government should reorganize its Community Development Unit to give adequate technical assistance and train the CBAs on how to achieve their objectives sustainably. Recognition (Awards) should be formally given to CBAs that have performed well.

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Dairy Farmers’ Use of Different Knowledge Sources, Abraham Blum and Moshe Katz, 39-46.

A survey was conducted on the extent to which three different types of dairy farmers use written and verbal information sources. The most important written source of information was the Dairy Farmers’ Magazine. Extension workers were the most important verbal source. The frequency of dairy farmers’ use of the different information sources was correlated mainly with their level of agricultural education. This was found to be an important factor explaining why the milk yield in Kibbutzim is higher than that on family farms. Better educated farmers sought more information extension, but they followed the advice received, less than those with less agricultural education.

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Farmers’ Led participatory Extension Education – Five ‘P’ Model, Ranjit Singh, 47-57.

In the existing model, major emphasis is laid on giving knowledge to the clients. It has been seen that it is of no use to improve the knowledge base for a particular activity without examining the specific work situation and the degree of freedom available to act on that information. Programmes should be those which help people to stand on their own feet, that genuinely encourage responsibility, initiative, decision making and self-reliance. The present model known as the Five ‘P’ model of participation consists of the following steps.

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Fee-Charging Extension In China: Implications and Function, Xu Fei and Takeya Hiroyuki, 58-67.

This article addresses an effort to evaluate sustainable vitality and adaptability of Fee-Charging Extension (FCE) in China. Special focus is on the Technical Contract Approach (TCA), a major wing of the FCE. Features of TCA are distinguished from extension privatization by analyzing the fee distribution. This article identifies that TCA functions principally to establish an incentive mechanism both to extension technicians and to farmers, which leads to an increase in adoption of technology. Well-developed FCE is useful to China. Experiences of FCE featuring TCA may also be helpful for reference to other developing countries with small-scale farming, where extension organizations are troubled by lack of funds and low efficiency in activities.

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An Assessment of Botswana’s Extension System in Poverty Alleviation, Wapula Nelly Raditloaneng, 68-81.

This paper is an analysis of Botswana’s eight ministries multi-sectoral extension system. The country has three main delivery modes of adult education—adult basic education, extension and continuing education. Extension work entails a movement from a government of certainty (centralized, government bureaucracy) to uncertainty (decentralized, community). No formal evaluation of extension has been done in Botswana. Based on an analysis of theoretical, empirical and interventive research on extension in Botswana, this paper argues that while extension work is a crucial component of dissemination of power in different ministries, there are inherent constraints in the provision of extension services. These need to be addressed to enhance the quality of Botswana’s extension service.

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Reaching rural poor developing a strategy for the promotion and dissemination of participatory aquaculture research: A case study from Eastern India, Malene Felsing, Graham Haylor, Anna Lawrence and Pat Norrish, 82-106.

This paper reports on the development of a communication dissemination strategy for aquaculture recommendations resulting from participatory research in eastern India. It focuses on the rural poor who have limited access to resources and no effective aquaculture extension support. Important matters in relation to access to extension message include socio economics issues, access to TV and radio receivers, literacy levels, and language. The paper shows the relative accessibility of different types of media (video and audiocassettes, posters and leaflets) is presented and costed in three stages, together with a design checklist. The importance of links between research and development in the context of extension is discussed.

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Factors Influencing Traditional Farmers to Adopt Improved Food Crop Production Technologies in Bo District of Southern Sierra Leone, P. J. Squire, 107-116.

The purpose of the study was to determine the factors that influence farmers to adopt food crop production technologies in the Bo District of Southern Sierra Leone. The specific objectives were to: (1) describe the demographic characteristics of traditional arable crop farmers; (2) determine the perceptions of farmers regarding the factors that influence them to adopt the improved arable crop production technologies; and (3) describe farmers’ attitudes toward the agricultural communication media. Data was collected by face-to-face interview method with the aid of a structured interview schedule. The findings indicated that a majority of the farmers were 38 years and above, female, married, illiterate, had more than four dependents, and hold the status of head of household. The farmers were influenced to adopt the improved arable crop production technologies by other farmers, the characteristics of the new crops, and by mechanical, draught animal, fertilizer, row planting, and weed and disease control technologies. Farmers agreed strongly about the usefulness of the agricultural technology communication media in being helpful to all farmers, giving useful farming information, providing a basis for decision making, and in reaching all farming communities in time. Farmers agreed slightly with the usefulness of agricultural technologies communication media in making farmers set achievable goals, enabling farmers to do a better job of farming maximizing farm productivity, and in helping farmers to put pieces of information together to solve problems. It was recommended that: (1) Farmers be involved in agricultural technology development as they will have to make final decisions to adopt or to reject the technology; (2) Farmers be trained in extension methods as they influence more farmers to adopt field crop production technologies, and (3) Appropriate farm inputs, promote the exchange of information between farmers and help farmers try new farming technologies.

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