Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1999, Volume 15(1), June
Gboku, M. L. S. FARM
TECHNOLOGY, Women’s Participation and Resource Control in Sierra Leone.
Baryeh, A. B., Ntifo-Siaw, E.,
& Baryeh, E. A. Transfer of Fish Preservation Technology to women in
Botha, C. A. J. Towards
Measuring Instrument to Predict Farmers’ Success.
Apantaku, S. O. Target
Audience Adoption of Agricultural Technologies Developed By University of
Agriculture Abeokuta Researchers: Case for a new Linkage Mechanism.
Shamebo, D. & Belehu, T. Peasants’
Participatory Evaluation in Release of Early Maturing Sweet Potato Varieties
in Southern Region of Ethiopia.
Madukwe, M. C. Factors
Affecting Coordination Among Government Agricultural Extension Agencies in
Lindner, J. Common Sense
Approach: A Wasteful Management.
Today, poverty is a global phenomenon
and is not restricted to the developing countries alone. Even rich countries
like USA are in the grip of poverty. In a recent report, the anti-hunger group
“Bread For the World” says that the United States has more children living
in poverty than any other industrialized nation. According to the World Bank
estimates, poverty has gradually grown to become a widespread phenomenon that
encompasses nearly 20 per cent of the World population.
There is a general consensus that every human should at least have the basic
needs of life in terms of food, clothing and shelter to lead a life with
dignity. This is not an impossible task, given the “Will” to envision and
implement a strategic design for a better world order. Certain tips in this
direction are offered for building a sound development base.
First: Poverty is not merely a
social or economic phenomenon. It encompasses a wide range of conditions and
covers a large part of humanity. The cultural, religious, geographical,
communal, and economic differences between people have led to widen the gap
between the rich and the poor. Globalization has thus made the rich richer and
the poor poorer. Development strategy must consider these factors while
designing strategies for alleviation of poverty.
Second: Protected economics
resulting in favoritism, frequent scandals, and pervading corruption have badly
affected economic growth. Benefits are accrued to a section of population. In
order to make a sound development strategy that could suit to the changing needs
of global poverty, political system has to adapt a constitution which could be
conducive to economic expansion.
Third: Parallel economy in many
developing where funds are diverted away from development of a free-market
especially towards terrorism, political destabilization, and fundamentalists
religious activities are becoming a cause for poverty in a planned manner on a
global scale. International institutions like the World Bank, the UN and G-8
group of countries should come forward to take responsibility for creating mass
awareness about the relation between faith and poverty. Community centers must
be created where people of all sections could come together to interact with
valuable traditions of faith. Mass campaigns focusing on commonalities of
different religions using films, radio, television, print media, and CD-ROMS
would help in promoting multi-cultural understanding which are pre-requisites
for economic growth and social development.
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Gboku, M. L. S. FARM TECHNOLOGY, Women’s
Participation and Resource Control in Sierra Leone, 3-15.
This paper is an excerpt of a larger
study of draught animal technology in Sierra Leone. The purpose of the study was
to provide a better understanding of women’s access to and control over
production resources in draught animal farming. The study also identified the
factors that influence access and control, and determined the specific gender
roles performed by women in the use of animal technology. Findings revealed that
working with draught animal technology was a predominantly male activity with
the involvement of adult women limited to maintenance activities including
sheltering, grazing, and provision of animal health care. Although the women
reported access to draught animals, control over them and other resources was,
by tradition, vested in the men. Women’s potential to maximize production was
further constrained by lack of access to farm credit and failure of the
predominantly male extension agents to reach women.
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Baryeh, A. B., Ntifo-Siaw, E., & Baryeh, E. A. Transfer
of Fish Preservation Technology to women in Ghana, 16-37.
Traditional fish smoking in mud ovens in Ghana has many disadvantages. A
technology called the Chorkor Fish Smoker, which overcomes the disadvantages of
the traditional smoker, has been developed by the Intermediate Technology
Transfer Unit. The technology has been transferred to many women engaged in fish
smoking in the country. The effectiveness of the transfer, the constraints, the
availability of funds and incentives, source of financing, benefits, inputs
availability, interest and use of local materials of the technology has been
studied on 50 women fish smokers in the Cape Coast district of the Central
Region of Ghana. The study revealed that the technology transfer was effective
and appropriate. Credit facilities, input availability, and input cost were the
major constraints. They, however, benefited from increased knowledge, increase
in quantity, quality and shelf life of product, ready marketability of the
product, and increased cooperation with other fish smokers. Despite the
constraints the women like the technology.
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Botha, C. A. J. Towards Measuring Instrument to
Predict Farmers’ Success, 38-56.
It is often believed that farming success if mainly dependent on farm
management. This, however, is an over simplification. This investigation was
done to show (a) that farming success is the outcome of the influences of three
categories of variables, viz., personal and environmental variables, mediating
variable (perceptions, aspirations and knowledge) and farming behavioural
variables; and (b) that the relative influences of the different sets of factors
on farming outcomes are unequal. The different interrelationships between the
three sets of variables were not investigated. Data gathering was done by means
of personal interviews and included all the commercial project participants
within the borders of KaNgwane, a former homeland within the borders of the
Republic of South Africa. Pearson correlation, Chi-square and regression
analyses were used to select relevant variables and to test the hypotheses. The
results of the statistical analyses showed that there were 13 quantifiable
variables, which predicted 89.9 per cent of the variation in farming success.
The other ten per cent in success variation is ascribed to variables not taken
into account by the research. The 13 variables come from each of the three
categories of contributing variables and their relative influences on farming
success are shown not to be equal.
There is a great need in South Africa and other developing countries to focus
aid for farmers and other agricultural producers on those who will make best use
of it. This research has indicated that it is theoretically possible to
construct a scale to predict the success of farmers on commercial agricultural
projects. The scale can accommodate aspects of importance for decision-makers,
which could increase the success rate even further. Such a scale may be helpful
and valuable for credit suppliers and other decision-makers, e.g. in the
identification of farmers for land re-settlement purposes or different forms of
aid and assistance. Further research in this regard is required and recommended.
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Apantaku, S. O. Target Audience Adoption of
Agricultural Technologies Developed By University of Agriculture Abeokuta
Researchers: Case for a new Linkage Mechanism, 57-69.
Despite the existence of a specialized and research oriented University of
Agriculture in Abeokuta area of Ogun State Nigeria for the past ten years, the
cost of livestock feeds and human food, especially animal protein sources, is
still exorbitant. The University’s animal scientists have been able to develop
remarkable technologies and feed compounding innovations to reduce the cost of
feeds. The aim of the study, therefore, was to evaluate awareness and adoption
of the technologies developed by these academics by intended users, extension
workers and subject matter specialists in the area and determine the strength of
the linkage mechanism between the University’s researchers, extension agents,
and intended users of their technologies. Results indicated poor awareness and
adoption by users, and poor awareness by extension agents and SMSs. The linkage
between the researchers, extension agents and users was found to be weak and
ineffective. Since an effective linkage system is that where technologies
developed are mainly responsive to users problems only, the study recommended
and presented a new Agricultural Technology Research-Extension-Users linkage
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Shamebo, D. & Belehu, T. Peasants’
Participatory Evaluation in Release of Early Maturing Sweet Potato Varieties in
Southern Region of Ethiopia, 70-78.
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.
Lam) is one of the important root crops in SRE. One of the major constraints to
the production of sweet potato in Ethiopia in general and in SRE in particular
is the absence of early maturing and high yielding sweet potato varieties.
Eleven varieties of sweet potato were tested in different agro-ecological zones
in Ethiopia in 1993-1995 in a replicated experiment. In 1996, three of the best
performed varieties; namely, I-444, TIS-1499 and TIS-3017 (2) were planted in
two on-station and four on-farms. The plot size was 100 m2. Every
on-farm activity, from site selection up to releasing of the varieties was
executed in conjunction with farmers, researchers and development agents.
In overall comparison of all the six locations,
on-farm vis-à-vis on-station, the higher average yield was obtained from the
on-farm trials for the all varieties under verification. The average yield of
TIS-1499 in on-farm trials is 7.91t ha-1, more than that of
on-stations; I-444, 4.32 t ha –1 and TIS-3017 (2), 3,82 t ha-1.
In general, the yield data of the 3 years (1993-95) had similar trends to that
of the verification trial. The peasants ranked the varieties based on the taste,
appearance and horticultural characteristics. Finally, based on the data of
three years across two on-stations and four on-farm variety verification trials
and farmers’ assessment the NVRC has officially released the three candidate
varieties to be disseminated to farmers as of 1997. The varieties were given the
local names, too. Therefore, those released varieties should be multiplied and
disseminated to users. The participation of peasants in the research process
highly facilitates the means of obtaining feed back for research and extension
process, paves the way for the consecutive dissemination and adoption of a
technology/ies, and builds up the confidence of peasants in research activity
and in their innovativeness.
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Madukwe, M. C. Factors Affecting Coordination Among
Government Agricultural Extension Agencies in Nigeria, 79-88.
This study was carried out to identify the major facilitating factors and
barrier to the coordination of the activities of government agencies
implementing agricultural extension services in Nigeria. One hundred and thirty
administrative staff from three major agricultural extension agencies in
Nigeria, namely, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Agricultural Development
Programme, and the Local Government Councils, provided information for the
study. The Factor Analysis techniques were used in data analysis. The results
show the two major facilitating factors as “domain consensus” and
“comparable objectives”, while the two major barrier factors were “concern
of organizational autonomy” and “poor logistics support”.
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Lindner, J. Common Sense Approach: A Wasteful
Extension needs managers to coordinate the human, capital, and other
resources necessary to accomplish organizational goals (Buford, Bedeian, &
Lindner, 1995). At the county level, these managers are called County chairs.
Properly trained and educated, County chairs are effective in making managerial
decisions. However, under trained and under educated County chairs lead to
wasteful management. One common example of wasteful management is the common
sense approach. The common sense approach to wasteful management can be defined
as making managerial decisions based on common sense or gut feelings, rather
than making managerial decisions based on knowledge that has been accumulated
through experience, analyzed and developed through scientific inquiry, and
organized into a discipline (Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995). This paper
provides a framework for addressing the common sense approach to wasteful
management. The conclusions of the analysis are that Extension needs to (1)
recognize that the common sense approach to wasteful management occurs, (2)
recognized that the consequences of making managerial decisions based on common
sense can have dire consequences, and (3) take action to eliminate managerial
decisions based on common sense.
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