Journal of Extension Systems

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1999, Volume 15(2), December

O. S. Verma, Editorial

  1. Verma, O. S., & Saha, G. S. Participative Management: Leadership Styles are not Determinants.

  2. Lowdermilk, M. K., & Barakat, E. F. Expanding Participatory Irrigation Management: Formidable Lessons Learned and Tough Policy Challenges in Egypt.

  3. Lindner, J. R. Exploring Ethical Perceptions of Extension Professionals as Viewed by Extension Professionals and Extension Clientele.

  4. Squire, P. J. Preserving Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge and Skills Through Research, Extension, and Training for Sustainable Agricultural Development and Production in Third World Countries: A Review.

  5. Tripathi, B. D. Human Resource Development of Agricultural Extension Personnel in New Millennium: A Prospective View.

 

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Globalization

Globalization is not a new phenomenon. It has been in the market since 19th Century. Recently, however, it has caught attention of “Protectionists” in sharp contrast to what has been in the agenda of “Protestors”. In that sense, globalization can be thought of in a number of ways.

In essence, globalization means one “Worldism” in which we have to participate as “Equals”. We have also to compete in world market not only in economy building but also in our research and development activities, this calls for Creativity in terms of commercial value of what we produce. In other words, what is the production value of creative research in global perspective.

Globalization is also seen as a consequence of our “Contacts”. The contact with the west is a sign of globalization. In order to strengthen the contacts through rapport building and networking methods, we have to keep pace with the developed economics and so also to keep abreast with the modernity of outside World in various sectors of development. It will free us from ignorance of the World. This is what is lacking in Extension Science.

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Verma, O. S., & Saha, G. S. Participative Management: Leadership Styles are not Determinants, 1-19.

Participative Management is a system of sharing process where managers and their subordinates work together in a team. This team, however, depends upon several factors. Managerial leadership styles were such factors, which were hypothesized that they can predict the extent of participative management. But the findings of this study reveal that leadership styles are not the determinants of participative management. None of the four leadership styles is found to have any significant correlation with participative management. Different leadership styles are found to have been in different organizations. The study was conducted in 1993 with 200 Indian Extension Administrators in five organizations, namely, ICAR, SAU, AG & AH, AVC, and RB. Four leadership styles were delineated for this study, namely, autocratic, democratic, free rein, and boss-subordinates.

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Lowdermilk, M. K., & Barakat, E. F. Expanding Participatory Irrigation Management: Formidable Lessons Learned and Tough Policy Challenges in Egypt, 20-47.

This paper documents the historical precedents for irrigation participation in Egypt and the evolution of formal private water user associations and the Irrigation Advisory Service of the Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources (MPWWR). Lessons documented from key external evaluations are identified and examined. Recent policy analysis efforts, which raise issues and challenges for the MPWWR, are described. Egypt, as many countries, has some strong historical traditions upon which to build viable water user associations. These tested and proven traditional principles should not be ignored in evolving a strong participatory irrigation management programme at either the micro or macro-levels. Useful lessons have been learned from a formal programme (1987 to 1999) in establishing private water user associations (WUAs) and a new Irrigation Advisory Service (IAS) to assist WUAs. Policy analysis studies in 1998 have identified a number of options for expanding the present program. Given the strong support of senior policy makers in MPWWR, there is now an opportunity to move ahead in building water user participation in canal federations and irrigation districts. Major policy makers realize that future programmes and expansions of existing programmes should build on past relevant lessons and proceed with careful analysis and caution. The primary caution is that the Irrigation Advisory Service needs to be substantially strengthened. Policies that provide real incentives to water users and water suppliers need to be evolved along with increased high-level and more widespread public awareness to support and sustain large future PIM expansion.

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Lindner, J. R. Exploring Ethical Perceptions of Extension Professionals as Viewed by Extension Professionals and Extension Clientele, 48-58.

The purpose of this research was to address the question of whether Extension professionals’ views about ethical behavior are similar to the views of Extension clientele. A convenience sample of sixteen Extension professionals and eighteen Extension clientele participated in this study. Comparisons between Extension professionals and Extension clientele suggest that both groups are generally similar in their views of what constitutes ethical and unethical conduct for Extension professionals. This may be due in part because ethical problems often fall into a “gray” area where defining “right” and “wrong” is difficult. While today’s Cooperative Extension Service is more socially responsible than in the past, its performance must be placed in the context of today’s society (Buford, Bedeian and Lindner). Ensuring equal success and participation by diverse groups within a community is only part of the responsibility of today’s Extension professionals. Extension professionals are expected to be socially responsible and are held accountable for their actions; this includes behaving in a manner that society considers to be ethical.

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Squire, P. J. Preserving Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge and Skills Through Research, Extension, and Training for Sustainable Agricultural Development and Production in Third World Countries: A Review, 59-72.

It is suggested in this literature review that Research Institutions should involve farmers in indigenous agricultural knowledge research by setting up the required situation where both the farmers and researchers will take risks either together or independently to transform the indigenous farming institutions. It is further suggested that the agricultural extension and training institutions should blend the traditional and modern knowledge systems in their training programmes and establish indigenous knowledge centres. These approaches will empower and enhance local control over the content and relevance of research and training and it will help to generate and adapt local technology that farmers can use in farm production systems.

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Tripathi, B. D. Human Resource Development of Agricultural Extension Personnel in New Millennium: A Prospective View, 73-86.

The concept of Human Resource Development in Agricultural sector remained far cry for a considerable period, compared with industrial and service sector. During first four decades after independence, the focus of Indian Agriculture remained on production and productivity of food grains to meet the growing demands due to continuous growth in population. The extension approach and methodology followed in agriculture sector during last fifty years remained in line to support more production with required pace and changing focus. It can be marked as extensive, intensive, research based, and finally training and visit (T&V) system.

The present paper highlights the need for Human Resource Development of Agricultural extension personnel in the changing scenario from subsistence to commercial agriculture and new dispensation of GATT/WTO agreement. The agriculture is now seen as profit-oriented enterprise and many new cash crops of commercial value are taken up by the farmers. Under this new situation, key factor for success will largely depend upon development of farmers’ capacity to absorb new knowledge of improved practices and technology. They need to be self-reliant agri-preneures.

To develop these farmers, specially small and marginal farmers as agri-preneures and making farming profitable enterprise, the state sponsored extension machinery will have to take lead with completely changed focus and attitude towards their roles and responsibilities. A new agenda for Human Resource Development for agricultural extension personnel in terms of required competencies in knowledge and skills such as technical, organizational, managerial and communication and business skills will be required in order to meet challenges of new millennium.

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