Journal of Extension Systems

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1998, Volume 14(2), December

O. S. Verma, Editorial

  1. Ilevbaoje, I. E.  Effectiveness of Training & Visit Extension System: Preliminary Results in Nigeria.

  2. Raditloaneng, W. N. Participatory Rural Appraisal: Prospects for Extension Work. The case of Botswana.

  3. Nithya Shree, D. A. & Siddaramaiah, B. S. Validation of Rogers Model of Adopter Categories.

  4. Chizari, M., Nosratie, S., & Radhakrishna, R. B. Awareness, Attitudes and Obstacles of Rice Farmers Toward Cultivating Berseem clover in the Talesh Region of Gilan Province, IRAN.

  5. Squire, P. J. A Study of the Attitudes of Traditional Farmers Toward the Usefulness of Selected Channels for Communicating Agricultural Technology in Botswana.

  6. Ogunwale, A. B. & Laogun, E. A. Analysis of Sources of Farm Information and Improved Technologies used by Farmers in Nigerian Agricultural Development Programmes.

  7. Ladebo, J. L. & Joseph, A. U. Influence of Socio-Economic and Communication Factors as Determinants of Utilization of Soybeans in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.

  8. Shamebo, D. Promotion of Development Through Extension System: Experience From Extension Effort for the Development of wheat in Bale Zone of South Eastern Ethiopia.

  9. Omokore, D. F. & Modo, I. V. O. Trends in Agricultural Extension Approaches in Nigeria.

 

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Globalization of Agricultural Development through CATE-System

Agriculture is the bedrock of economy in most developing countries especially where 60 per cent of farmers own about 1 hectare of land suitable for cultivation. How to make this piece of land most productive and most remunerative to generate income sufficient to fetch two square meals a day for a family of 5 members has been the bone of contention of policy planners, development administrators, and extension workers. For generations, crop farming has been the main concentration of most farmers and with the application of Science & Technology they have made tremendous progress in food grains production. But one question still remains as to whether crop farming on one hectare of land generates sufficient income to meet the divergent needs of the family. Probably, this exercise has not yet been done especially in comparison with animal agriculture.

The World Bank floated the T&V System of Extension with a motto “Grow food, more food, and only food” to increase farmers’ income through enhancing management of extension machineries at all levels. Perhaps, they had forgotten that agriculture cannot be talked about without reference to livestock. Because of this lacuna, the T&V System became irrelevant to animal science based extension programs. Many of us, therefore, took up a challenge in the sense that what is then relevant to livestock sciences. This constrained me to coin a new abbreviation known as CATE-System (Comprehensive Agri-livestock Technology & Extension System) of Agricultural Development. This is an unified extension system to provide ready-made modules to: (1) Dairy farmers, (2) Pig farmers, (3) Poultry owners, (4) Cattle farmers, (5) Goat keepers, (6) Fisheries, (7) Vegetable growers, (8) Fruit orchards, (9) Farm forestry, and (10) Crop farming enterprises. For each of these enterprises, the CATE-System will be capable of providing up-to-date advice, information, and agripreneurial training to farmers on breeds and breeding, feeds and forage production, nutrition and balanced ration, animal health care, animal housing and management, and hygienic animal productions and handling. In addition, the CATE-System will provide farmers with information on enterprise costs and benefits which is very crucial to most farmers while making decisions. The CATE-System is a three-stage strategy of agricultural development:

CAT + E = System

Whereas “CAT” is the first stage, “E” is the second stage, and “System” is the third stage. It means we have to first develop one hectare Comprehensive Agri-livestock Technology Units (CAT-Units) of different enterprises, mainly those 10 listed above, at one place in the heart of rural communities known as the “CATE’ Center”. The idea of setting up of these Units in the rural communities is to become identical of local conditions, to build “Confidence” among rural farmers, and to show the worth of high-tech agri livestock enterprises in the village environment away from experimental laboratories. Once these Units are established and sufficient cost-benefit data is generated, then the second Stage “E” Extension begins. Those farmers who wish to duplicate any one of these 10 enterprises or those who want all of them or combination of some of them will be identified and helped to develop similar enterprises on their farm land. They will be assisted in procuring loans in collaboration with a lead bank of that particular area. When a sufficient number of CATE farmers have adopted these Units, they will be united in the form of “Cooperatives” so as to provide them marketing facilities of their produce. Until then, the CATE-Center will do the marketing function. On duplicating at least 100 CAT-Units on the farmers’ land, the benefits accrued to farmers will be analyzed. The success achieved in CATE programs will become the basis of formulating a complete system known as “CATE-System”. In order to globalize the idea, it is recommended that at least one CATE-Center should be established in each country especially in developing countries. The 3rd stage of the “CATE-System” will be floated on receiving the data of the first and second stages from each CATE-Center. This is how globalization of agricultural development through the CATE-System has been conceptualized.

In this system, certain assumptions are implied. First, the CAT-Units will incorporate high-tech of the particular enterprise. Second, the high-tech CAT-Units will be developed under the direct supervision of the scientist concerned. Third, the land on which these CAT Units will be developed should be the ownership property of the CATE-Project, Fourth, the CAT-Units established in CATE-Center should continue to exist so as to serve as an ideal Demonstration Unit. Fifth, the management and administrative control of the CATE-Centers should be independent without interference of any other institution/organization/University. Sixth, FSR and Farmers Participatory approach will be properly guarded while developing CAT-Units. Seventh, Farmers training will be the integral component of the System. In order to experiment with the idea of CATE-System, some international agencies like the World Bank, USAID, USDA, FOA IFAD, or Winrock International should come forward to finance the project.

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Ilevbaoje, I. E.  Effectiveness of Training & Visit Extension System: Preliminary Results in Nigeria, 9-21.

Conceptually, agricultural extension is a service or system that educated farm people and taught them improved farming methods and techniques in order to increase their productive efficiency, income and improve standard of living. This study was prompted by a desire to find out the extent to which the introduction of the Training and Visit (T & V) extension system has affected farmers knowledge about improved technologies, adoption of farm practices, farm productivity (yield) and income of farmers. The findings indicate that the T & V system has beneficial effects on farm productivity and incomes of farmers as contact and non-contact farmers differed significantly in respect of these variables. Paradoxically, the study showed that the system was neither effective in improving the knowledge of farmers nor did it accelerate the adoption of farm practices.

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Raditloaneng, W. N. Participatory Rural Appraisal: Prospects for Extension Work. The case of Botswana, 22-34.

This paper discusses the potential for participatory rural appraisal (PRA), based on the results of a study conducted by a team from within the departments of adult education and social work, University of Botswana, from October 1995 to October 1996. This paper highlights how the PRA itself was conducted and how it can be useful consultation or communication tool for extension work in district councils. The participatory research approach emphasizes the collaboration of local beneficiaries in the interactive prioritization, identification of problems, problem definition, and alternative solutions. It is part of the democratic effort to address societal conflict brewed by unequal distribution and use of power between the national leadership and followership.

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Nithya Shree, D. A. & Siddaramaiah, B. S. Validation of Rogers Model of Adopter Categories, 35-46.

Rogers developed a model of classification of adopters consisting of five categories viz., innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. The present study was conducted to validate this model for Indian conditions. The data were collected from three villages during 1996, where there was complete adoption of five selected innovations. All the innovations followed normality in their adopter distribution over time. Based on statistical analysis of the data, the adopters were classified into four categories, namely, Pioneers, Progressives, Imitators and Skeptics and their typical characteristics described.

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Chizari, M., Nosratie, S., & Radhakrishna, R. B. Awareness, Attitudes and Obstacles of Rice Farmers Toward Cultivating Berseem clover in the Talesh Region of Gilan Province, IRAN, 47-58.

The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing rice planters toward cultivation of Berseem Clover (BC) in Talesh region of Gilan Province, Iran. Specific objectives of the study were to: 1) determine the awareness of rice planters toward cultivating BC as a second crop, after harvesting rice, 2) determine attitudes of rice planters toward cultivating BC as a second crop, after rice, 3) identify obstacles to cultivating BC as second crop, after harvesting rice, and 4) determine relationships, if any, between demographic characteristics and awareness, obstacles and attitudes toward cultivating Berseem clover. Findings indicated that a majority of rice farmers have positive attitudes, and were aware of the benefits of cultivating BC as a second crop. However, they reported that lack of financial resources to put fence around the farms is a major obstacle to BC cultivation. Those farmers who were aware of BC also had higher positive attitudes toward cultivating BC. Farmers who perceived greater obstacles had negative attitudes toward cultivating BC.

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Squire, P. J. A Study of the Attitudes of Traditional Farmers Toward the Usefulness of Selected Channels for Communicating Agricultural Technology in Botswana, 59-71.

The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the attitudes of traditional farmers toward the use of selected channels of communicating agricultural technologies in Botswana. The objectives were to: (1) describe the Botswana traditional farmers, (2) describe the farmers attitude toward the usefulness of selected channels for communicating agricultural technologies, and (3) determine if the traditional farmers were aware of the selected channels for communicating agricultural technologies. One hundred and fifty farmers randomly selected from 12 extension areas in the country participated in the study. The results showed that majority of the farmers were in the age group of 41-50 (57%), 55% female, 53% single, 60% mixed farmers, 59% never attended school, and 80% were heads of households. The most useful channels for communicating agricultural technology identified by the farmers were the male and female technical assistants and most farmers were aware of a great majority of the channels for communicating agricultural technologies in Botswana.

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Ogunwale, A. B. & Laogun, E. A. Analysis of Sources of Farm Information and Improved Technologies used by Farmers in Nigerian Agricultural Development Programmes, 72-83.

The study examined the sources of farm information and technologies used by registered farmers in two Nigerian Agricultural Development Programmes. Data were collected from randomly selected 120 registered farmers in the programmes. It was revealed that village extension workers constituted the most used source of farm information and technologies. Other sources used by farmers include fortnightly training meetings, radio agricultural programmes, friends and neighbors, demonstration sites, and programme contact farmers.

The study further revealed that more emphasis was placed on individual channels of communication than mass media methods. Specifically, no farmer mentioned the use of agricultural film, show, mobile open broadcast and television broadcast in the two programmes. It was statistically established that there was no significant relationship between age of farmer and the number of sources of farm information and technologies used by farmers. The use of combinations of extension methods was recommended to facilitate extension service and adoption of farm technologies in the programmes.

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Ladebo, J. O. & Joseph, A. U. Influence of Socio-Economic and Communication Factors as Determinants of Utilization of Soybeans in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria, 84-96.

Soybean (Glycine max. L. Merril) a leguminous crop, is a veritable source of high quality but low cost protein which could be used for the fortification of a wide variety of diets of the people, most especially the rural dwellers who cannot afford the traditional sources of protein foods in this period of the nation’s economic depression. The crop is being promoted among the rural people both for cultivation and consumption. This study sought to determine the adoption level of the utilization forms of soybean and also ascertain the significant factors that contribute to or influence adoption behaviour of the women-in-development of Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State.

For the study purposes, 150 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed from 10 villages in Odeda Local Government Area using validated structured interview schedule. Findings show that 97.3% of the women-in-development have adopted the use of soybean in their diets and the commonest form being used is the flour. Determinants of adoption are extension contact, educational level and farming experience. It is highly recommended that for enhancement of the adoption of soybean among the women-in-development, the farmer – extension ratio 2166:1 in the State need improvement. To optimize their personnel resources, the extension service should identify existing viable local groups and where such groups are not viable or in existence should facilitate the formation of one which would form the basis of the extension teaching efforts. This should be complemented with media communication support, especially the use of radio since this cuts across the barrier of literacy and distance.

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Shamebo, D. Promotion of Development Through Extension System: Experience From Extension Effort for the Development of wheat in Bale Zone of South Eastern Ethiopia, 97-104.

In general, arable farming is new to the Bale highlands; its start doesn’t exceed three to four decades. Until then, the area was inhabited by pastoralists. Rainfall in the highlands of Bale, Mendeyou district (Awraja) has bimodal pattern of distribution permitting two equally important cropping seasons in a year. Nowadays, there is an increasing trend in wheat and decreasing in barley production at Goba and surrounding areas in Mendeyou mainly due to wheat becoming a commercial crop and more yield being obtained from wheat than barley due to more and extensive extension effort on wheat. Wheat is the main cash crop in Gennale and Mendeyou Awrajas. On the overall objective of upgrading the yield of wheat in the region, improved wheat technologies were demonstrated to farmers in a number of locations from 1982-1992. The data of meher season were analyzed, presented and discussed in this paper. Those technologies promoted wheat development to a higher level through the degree of the adoption of one or more of the technologies may be variable from one peasant to another. In fact, the crop was also introduced to the new areas where it was not accustomed in production hitherto through extension effort.

Farmers are willing to adopt the technologies provided that they can have access to them. Therefore, for the successful accomplishment of extension work, social circumstances such as administrative willingness, policy issues, and farmers consciousness level are the decisive factors besides the natural one. Hence, such problems should be solved to enhance development in the region. Moreover, it is necessary that varieties tolerant to frost be bred and disseminated to users especially in mountain areas which are prone to frost.

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Omokore, D. F. & Modo, I. V. O. Trends in Agricultural Extension Approaches in Nigeria, 105-113.

The paper observes that agricultural extension is dynamic and increasing in sophistication. The agricultural practices of the 60s and 70s have become obsolete because of increased technological advancement especially in land use techniques and in seed multiplication and application. The method of transmitting knowledge to recipients especially the farmers has also greatly changed. The article reviews the trends in Nigerian Agricultural Extension approaches and enunciates the prospects and problems of the various approaches adopted. It concludes by preferring appropriate steps to get “agriculture moving”.

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