|Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1996, Volume 12(1), June
G. H. Duvel, Editorial
- Igodan, C. O. Agroforestry Systems in South Africa: Role of Extension Services.
- Nagaraja, N. & Sethurao, M. K. An Instrument to Measure Management Efficiency: Indian Sericulture Enterprise is the
- Omokore, D. F. Intermediate Level Agricultural Education In Nigeria: Diploma Holders are
'Job-Seekers' Rather Than Going Back to Till the Land.
- Duvel, G. H. & van der Wateren, J. J. Mistaking the Opinion Leaders: Diffusion Break Down in Change Strategies.
- Rivera, W. M. Lessons on Agricultural Extension: In Global Perspectives.
- Verma, O. S. & Kumar Jha, S. Air-related Environmental Ethics: Indian Way of Consciousness.
- Omotayo, A. M., Atala, T. K. & Ogunwale, S. A.
Animal Traction Ownership and Utilization in Nigeria: Farmers' Characteristics are
Determinants to the Extent of 43 Percent and 69 Percent Respectively.
Paradigm Shift or Slide?
The recent paradigm shift in extension is widely interpreted as representing a drastic
move away from the technology-transfer model towards a facilitative approach entirely
subordinate to the needs of the community. For many extensionists this change, judging by
the perceived scope of it, appears to have taken on the dimensions of a "slide"
rather than a shift.
Change has been overdue and is widely welcomed. Opinions only vary as to the degree of
change that is welcome, and consequently the reactions to the new paradigm have been very
divergent. Indications are that they vary from, at the one extreme, judgements of
enthusiastic support and an unquestioned conviction concerning the paradigm's
applicability and appropriateness, to, at the other extreme, doubt, misgivings and even
resistance. The latter seems to be in response to the perceived extremeness of the
suggested change (paradigm slide more than a shift). Between these extremes is probably
the large majority of mostly practitioners that are in the forefront of the development
scene where the appropriateness of the new paradigm will be put to the test and will have
to prove itself. It is this majority that is still ignorant of the change, ignores it or
assumes-a wait and see attitude, that will have a decisive influence on how far the
paradigm will ultimately shift.
Characteristic of the introduction of new paradigms is their initial extreme nature
before they assume a more moderate and accommodative position. Will what presently appears
to be a paradigm slide in extension and rural development ultimately turn out to be a
paradigm shift that represents a compromise or "synthesis" of extremes? Perhaps,
it is normal and conducive to change for the protagonists of new paradigms to take extreme
stances: To applaud and propagate the new paradigm as the ultimate "truth" and
contemptuously reject every earlier one in its totality. Are these extreme viewpoints
normally based on scientific insight, or are they more often the results of "belief'
or "value" related emotion? If even science as such is a "value"
issue, then most of the debate about a new paradigm can hardly be conducted on purely
"objective" grounds either. Even the eminent or salient concepts associated with
extension and development, such as help towards self-help, self-determination and
participative development are aspects of value or belief and consequently could be
questioned like any other intervention that is of a promotional nature. In fact, the
question arises whether extension or development can truly rid itself of all promotional
motives and actions? Even in the industrial countries where promotional intervention is
increasingly scorned upon - to such a degree that the concept of extension is regarded as
outdated and no longer relevant - the zealous pursuit of environmental issues seems to
The current and ultimate interpretation of the paradigm will be revealed in the way in
which needs are going to be addressed or dealt with. Will under all circumstances only the
needs of the community be legitimate? What if they vary considerably and conflict and
division rather than consensus prevails, or if the development agent cannot associate
himself ethically with the need of the majority? Does the paradigm shift, after all,
represent only a return to the old and widely accepted philosophy of "help towards
If, on the other hand, the paradigm is interpreted to be method rather than goal
orientated, the paradigm shift might ultimately lead to the insight or a rediscovery of
the situation specificness of behavior which implies that the relevance, the
appropriateness and effectiveness of any method is essentially situation specific. Against
this background, most generalizations become questionable.
Back to Top
Agroforestry Systems in South Africa: Role of Extension Services, Chris O. Igodan, 1-12.
This paper discusses some of the issues related to the practice of agroforestry systems
in South Africa with a view of closely examining the role of extension services in the
sustainability of agroforestry programmes. This discussion is done with an informed
knowledge that it will act as a good basis of reaching and working with small farmers
involved in the sustainability of agroforestry programmes.
Back to Top
An Instrument to Measure Management Efficiency: Indian Sericulture Enterprise
is the Case, N. Nagaraja & M. K. Sethurao, 13-26.
Management efficiency is the degree to which an individual acquires effectiveness in
the enterprise to reach higher levels of performance. Although the management is
recognized as an important factor in the profit maximization process, there are no
adequate studies to indicate the determinants of management efficiency of an individual,
as well as, its quantification at higher level of measurement. The present study aims at
identifying the components of management efficiency and measurement of it at an interval
level. Knowledge of an enterprise, acquisition of skills, planning ability, rational
decision making ability, timely adoption, resource mobilization ability, coordination
ability, efficient utilization of resources, rational marketing, and competence in
evaluation were found to be the determinations of management efficiency. An instrument was
developed considering these determinants to measure the management efficiency by following
normalized rank approach suggested by Guilford (1954). The instrument developed was proved
to be standardized and objective type by different methods of reliability, validity and
norms of distribution of scores.
Back to Top
Intermediate Level Agricultural Education In Nigeria: Diploma Holders are
'Job-Seekers' Rather Than Going Back to Till the Land, David Funsho Omokore,
Reference is made to intermediate level of education in agriculture. The paper sought
to ascertain what the agricultural diploma holders do after training, identify the major
constraints that come in their way for going back to land and draw implications for the
planning and execution of the training curriculum. For the study, one hundred and fifteen
(115) questionnaires were administered to diploma students in five Colleges of
Agriculture; 93 were completed and returned. The findings suggest two major constraints,
namely, lack of capital and inputs and problems of land acquisition which together
accounted largely for the disinterest of the youth in farming. The implications of these
findings are highlighted and recommendations are made at addressing the anomalies.
Back to Top
Mistaking the Opinion Leaders: Diffusion Break Down in Change Strategies,
Gustav H. Duvel & Jan J. van der Wateren, 33-48.
The hypothesis investigated in this article is that the disappointing impact of opinion
leaders is due to their incorrect identification. Evidence is showing that the classical
method of opinion leader identification tends to identify the knowledgeable rather than
the influential person. Accessibilities is more important than knowledge but to be
negatively related to knowledge or competence. Friendship, on the other hand, is almost
synonymous with accessibility and could be used as an indication of it, provided the
limitation of restricted differentiation ability can be overcome.
Back to Top
Lessons on Agricultural Extension: In Global Perspectives, William M. Rivera, 49-75.
The changes and challenges affecting extension are symptomatic of wider forces at work
in society (Rivera and Gustafson 1991). Without a knowledge and appreciation of both
global and individual country forces, and their meaning for agricultural development in
general and extension in particular, attempts at formulating or improving extension are
likely to fail.
Back to Top
Air-related Environmental Ethics: Indian Way of Consciousness, O. S. Verma & Suniti Kumar Jha, 76-89.
By and large, Indian way of environmental consciousness seems to be sluggish as the
findings of this study indicate that the dungcakes, firewoods, and coal which are supposed
to be most striking air-related pollutants are almost always used in Indian rural homes.
Similarly, trashes of sugarcane and paddy straws which need to be used either for mulching
or cattle bedding are often burnt in the field itself thus producing huge smoke.
Bidi-cigarette smoking and chewing of tobacco-pan which are injurious to human health and
thus forbidden environmental ethics, are also found to be used in abundance and that too
in public places. Small scale village industries which have already become health hazards
are mushrooming in and around Indian Villages. Emissions from the diesel vehicles like
tractors, trucks & buses, and even diesel engines are found to be significant sources
of environmental degradation in rural areas. If these practices continue unabated, the
Indian Villages which are considered to be pollution free clean environment localities
will remain no different from cities. Therefore, civil remedies to mitigate pollution from
the Indian rural scene have to be found at the earliest. Perhaps, educational campaigns
using media-mix communication systems, duly incorporated in the policy document as a
mandatory requirement of the development agencies, can check this menace.
Back to Top
Animal Traction Ownership and Utilization in Nigeria: Farmers' Characteristics
are Determinants to the Extent of 43 Percent and 69 Percent Respectively, A. M. Omotayo, T. K. Atala & S. A. Ogunwale, 90-107.
This study examines farmers' characteristics which affect animal traction ownership and
utilization in a semi-arid farming system in Nigeria. A total of one hundred and seventy
farm households were selected through a combination of purposive and systematic random
sampling techniques and surveyed using structured interview technique. Data were analysed
using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The results show that animal
traction owners were older, owned larger farms, had training on animal traction and had
access to more credit than non-owners. It was also found that access status, farm size,
and training on animal traction were significant determinants of level of utilization of
the technology. While the labour saving advantage of animal traction appeared obvious when
users and non-users were compared, it remained unclear in the comparison between
Independent and Dependent users of the technology. Suggestions for improved utilization of
the technology include careful targeting of specific categories of farmers in the
promotion of the technology, expansion of the existing animal traction credit scheme, and
training of both adopters and non-adopters of the technology and more efficient
utilization of the technology.
Back to Top