Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1995, Volume 11(1), June
O. S. Verma, Editorial
- Albrecht, H. Experiences and Reflections About Extension.
- Karami, E. & Lari, M. B. Farmers' Attitudes Toward Soil Conservation: A Comparative Study.
- Frengley, G. A., Dalmazo, N. & Sorrenson, W.
J. Extension Misperceptions: Flawed Objectives in Advice to Farmers-A Brazilian Example.
- Dehai, W. & Van Den Ban, A. W. Trends in Chinese Extension.
- Igodan, C. O. Management of Training and Visit (T/V) System An Example From Nigeria.
- Verma, O. S. & Chander, M. Organizing Innovations In Management of Extension Systems.
- Rivera, W. M. Agricultural Extension as Adult Education.
The per capita land availability in most countries of South Asia is low with Pakistan
lowest at 0.07 hectare and China at 0.7 hectare. India, by contrast, has 0.12 hectare of
arable land. per person which is sufficient to grow food to feed her 930 million
population. Only four countries, namely, Japan, Singapore, Kuwait, and Oman have
insufficient land at 0.07 hectare per capita to feed their population without highly
intensive agriculture. This is so because they are wealthy enough to either import food or
increase agricultural productivity with modem farming methods. Today, the number of
countries with scarcity of arable land has included the Netherlands, South Korea, and
Egypt. Some of the world's poorest nations like Somalia, Bangladesh, Kenya, Mauritania,
and Yemen have also joined ranks -with countries suffering from the scarcity of arable
land. These are some salient features found in the new Report of Population Action
International (PAI), a non-government organization based in Washington, USA.
The idea of highlighting these striking data is to abreast the three critical arms of
agricultural development, i.e. the researchers, the extension workers, and the farmers
with the fact that the declining trend of land availability has left us with no
alternative except to increase agricultural productivity that too with judicious and
planned use of natural resources so as to ensure sustainability. This apparently calls for
a long term strategy integrating agricultural development and population policies. I have
all praise for ILEIA, a Netherlands based Centre which is doing yeoman service in this
direction to propagate low external inputs sustainable agriculture.
The researchers, the extension workers, and the farmers all have jointly to concentrate
their efforts on how to make scarce land more viable, more productive, more income
generating, and sustainable in agricultural production. Indian experiences have shown that
two crop wheat-rice cycle green revolution is no more profitable in today's context.
Diversification, therefore, has to be there. Options are many but one has to go in for a
preference best suited in terms of the type of land, proximity to the market, and
available modes of transport.
The choices range from cash crops like green fodder, dry fodder, vegetables, fruit
orchards, pulses, mustard, and grams to animal based enterprises like cattle farming,
buffalo farming, fish farming, poultry, piggery, and goat- herd. The integration of crop
and livestock production systems thus seems to be the best alternative which can strongly
influence the agro-ecological sustainability. Combining animal agriculture with crop
systems agriculture is a sure-shot diversification to ensure food security. But, before
going in for this shift, there is a need of experimenting these options especially in
countries where farmers live in village communities. India is the best example of this
kind as it comprises of 600 thousand villages.
World Bank floated the T&V System of Extension with a motto "Grow food, more
food, and only food' to increase farmers' income through enhancing management of extension
machineries at all levels. Perhaps, they had forgotten that agriculture cannot be talked
about without reference to livestock. Because of this lacuna, the T&V System became
irrelevant to animal science based extension programs. Many of us, therefore, took up a
challenge in the sense that what is then relevant to livestock sciences. This constrained
me to coin a new abbreviation known as CATE-System (Comprehensive Agri-livestock
Technology & Extension System) of Agricultural Development. This is an unified
extension system to provide ready-made modules to: (1) Dairy farmers, (2) Pig farmers, (3)
Poultry owners, (4) Cattle farmers, (5) Goat keepers, (6) Fisheries, (7) Vegetable
growers, (8) Fruit orchards, (9) Farm forestry, and (10) Crop farming enterprises. For
each of these enterprises, the CATE-System will be capable of providing up-to-date advice,
information, and agripreneurial (the term borrowed from Prof. Lawrence) training to
farmers on breeds and breeding, feeds and forage production, nutrition and balanced
ration, animal health care, animal housing and management, and hygienic animal productions
and handling. In addition, the CATE-System will provide farmers with information on
enterprise costs and benefits which is very crucial to most farmers while making
decisions. The CATE-System is three-stage strategy of agricultural development:
CAT + E = System
Whereas "CAT" is the first stage, "E" is the second stage, and
"System" is the third stage. It means we have to first develop one acre
Comprehensive Agri- livestock Technology Units (CAT-Units) of different enterprises,
mainly those 10 as listed above, at one place in the heart of rural communities known as
the "CATE-Centre". The idea of setting up of these Units in the rural
communities is to become identical of local conditions, to build "Confidence"
among rural farmers, and to show the worth of high-tech agri-livestock enterprises in the
village environment away from experimental laboratories. Once these Units are established
and sufficient cost-benefit data are generated, then the second Stage "E"
Extension begins. Those farmers who wish to duplicate any one of these 10 enterprises or
those who want all of them or combination of some of them will be identified and helped to
develop similar enterprises on their farm land. They will be assisted in procuring loans
in collaboration with a lead bank of that particular area. When a sufficient number of
CATE farmers have adopted these Units they will be united in the form of
"Cooperatives" so as to provide them marketing facilities of their produce.
Until then, the CATE-Center will do the marketing function. On duplicating at least 100
CAT-Units on the farmers' land, the benefits accrued to farmers will be analyzed. The
success achieved in CATE programs will become the basis of formulating a complete system
known as "CATE-System". In order to globalize the idea, it is recommended that
at least one CATE-Centre should be established in each country especially in developing
countries. The 3rd stage of the "CATE-System" will be floated on receiving the
data of the first and second stages from each CATE-Center. This is how globalization of
agricultural development through the CATE-System has been conceptualized.
In this System, certain assumptions are implied. First, the CAT-Units will incorporate
high-tech of the particular enterprise. Second, the high-tech CAT-Units will be developed
under the direct supervision of the scientist concerned. Third, the land on which these
CAT Units will be developed should be the ownership property of the CATE-Project, Fourth,
the management and administrative control of the CATE-Centres should be independent
without interference of any other institution/organization/University. Sixth, FSR and
Farmers Participatory approach will be properly guarded while developing CAT-Units.
Seventh, farmers training will be the integral component of the System. In order to
experiment with the idea of the CATE-System, some international agencies like the World
Bank, USAID, USDA, FAO, IFAD, or Winrock International should come forward to finance-the
project entitled "Globalization of Agricultural Development Through
CATE-System". I am one for taking up the lead in this kind of a project.
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Experiences and Reflections About Extension, Hartmut Albrecht,
I have served on the Editorial Board of the JES since 1988. On my recent retirement
from the University of Hohenheim, I was asked to reflect upon and share my experiences
with Extension. After some 40 years in extension work-, this write up is an effort to
reflect and to "share thoughts with the profession". While I am convinced that
systematic research is relevant in our field, I am sure that subjective experience and
interpretation of "reality" remains decisive. So, some hints about my background
shall help for understanding.
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Farmers' Attitudes Toward Soil Conservation: A Comparative Study, Ezatollah
Karami & Mohammad B. Lari, 10-26.
Declining fertility of eroded soils and deterioration of water quality and quantity is
a significant socio-environmental problem in all geographic regions of the world. The aim
of this study is to assess the farmers' attitudes toward soil erosion, to determine the
importance of different communication channels-in soil conservation and to explore the
frequency of the adoption of soil conservation it] an erosion-prone area of Iran, using a
two stage cluster random sample of 265 farmers. In addition, the study uses a secondary
data source to compare the characteristics of Iranian and U.S. farmers regarding soil
conservation attitudes and behaviours. It is concluded that while farmers of both
countries are similar in having a high degree of awareness of soil erosion problems, their
differences in socioeconomic characteristics, sources of information, assumed role for
government, and appropriate conservation practices used limit the generalisability of
findings from one country to another. Therefore, further research is needed to develop
soil conservation adoption models for developing countries in general and in Iran in
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Extension Misperceptions: Flawed Objectives in Advice to Farmers-A Brazilian
Example, G. A. Frengley, N. Dalmazo & W. J. Sorrenson,
Farm management advisors are frequently motivated to improve their client's farm
performance by new technical knowledge and changed economic circumstances. Successful
advice demands sound knowledge of all factors which influence the decision process.
Judgments that rational farm management decisions can be made, based solely on new
technology, ignores farmer's personal objectives, resources and capabilities. Brazil's
Government agricultural extension service was established post war. University training
was technically oriented with little emphasis on financial or farm management system
implications, or the objectives of farm families. By the 1980s, the service was failing
and in 1988 Federal funding to the States was abandoned. Results of this study indicate
that many Brazilian extensionists were mistaken in their belief of the usefulness of new
technology for farmer needs. Public funding used for technology transfer and for research
was misdirected, suggesting graduate training may have been inappropriate. There are
lessons for agricultural research, extension and development in all countries.
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Trends in Chinese Extension, Wang Dehai & A. W. Van
Den Ban, 45-56.
This paper examines the agricultural extension system in China which is in transition
due to the change from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. The roles of
agricultural extension are changing along with the changes of the overall political and
economic situation in the country. The model of agricultural extension before the economic
reform was administration oriented. During the reform period, this changed to income
generation oriented. The objectives of rural development in China can be better achieved
if a farmer oriented extension concept is integrated into the extension system.
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Management of Training and Visit (T/V) System An Example From Nigeria,
Chris O. Igodan, 57-66.
No other extension system has received so much attention as the Training and Visit
(T/V) system. In Nigeria, the T/V has become the extension strategy of the Agricultural
Development Projects (ADPS) which over the years has emerged as the most important
programme for tackling the country's food and agricultural problem (Patel, 1985). However,
peculiarity of conditions in different countries where the system is applied has led to
criticisms as regard its feasibility, adaptability and effectiveness; although such
criticisms have been largely academic due to sketchy reports from different parts of the
world. In this study, an attempt was made to convey the experiences of Kano ADP with
application of the T and V - how it is applied, problems associated with the application;
and whether or not it has addressed the organization and management problems it was
expected to tackle.
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Organizing Innovations In Management of Extension Systems, O. S. Verma and Mahesh Chander, 67-92.
Greater the use of management innovations in organizing day to day affairs greater is
the success. This tenet is central to the effectiveness of any system. Extension managers
in Indian Extension systems seem to be practicing B' grade management Innovations to the
extent of 79 per cent. Their management training is inevitable to make them first grade
managers. Of the four Extension Systems [ICAR-ES, AU-ES T&V-ES, and PR-ES], the
T&V-ES is found to be the best in managing its men, material, money and machineries.
This study draws the conclusion that the bureaucratic system especially in Panchayati Raj
and ICAR-ES requires to be overhauled in their style of functioning.
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Agricultural Extension as Adult Education, William M. Rivera,
Agricultural extension is generally considered by adult educators to be one of the many
different providers of adult education. "The contexts of adult lives are so varied
and the needs so numerous that there has emerged a division of labour for the delivery of
adult education content among different providers in relation to different specialized
constituencies," as Bhola (1989) aptly observes. Agricultural extension's pragmatic,
specialized content and its task-oriented field-directed methodologies for providing
informational and technology transfer and often other services as well, indeed places this
provider (i.e., this multi -institutional provider) in a unique category, so unique in
fact that it is often overlooked in discussions of education.
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