Journal of Extension Systems

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1995, Volume 11(1), June

O. S. Verma, Editorial

  1. Albrecht, H. Experiences and Reflections About Extension.
  2. Karami, E. & Lari, M. B. Farmers' Attitudes Toward Soil Conservation: A Comparative Study.
  3. Frengley, G. A., Dalmazo, N. & Sorrenson, W. J. Extension Misperceptions: Flawed Objectives in Advice to Farmers-A Brazilian Example.
  4. Dehai, W. & Van Den Ban, A. W. Trends in Chinese Extension.
  5. Igodan, C. O. Management of Training and Visit (T/V) System An Example From Nigeria.
  6. Verma, O. S. & Chander, M. Organizing Innovations In Management of Extension Systems.
  7. Rivera, W. M. Agricultural Extension as Adult Education.

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The per capita land availability in most countries of South Asia is low with Pakistan lowest at 0.07 hectare and China at 0.7 hectare. India, by contrast, has 0.12 hectare of arable land. per person which is sufficient to grow food to feed her 930 million population. Only four countries, namely, Japan, Singapore, Kuwait, and Oman have insufficient land at 0.07 hectare per capita to feed their population without highly intensive agriculture. This is so because they are wealthy enough to either import food or increase agricultural productivity with modem farming methods. Today, the number of countries with scarcity of arable land has included the Netherlands, South Korea, and Egypt. Some of the world's poorest nations like Somalia, Bangladesh, Kenya, Mauritania, and Yemen have also joined ranks -with countries suffering from the scarcity of arable land. These are some salient features found in the new Report of Population Action International (PAI), a non-government organization based in Washington, USA.

The idea of highlighting these striking data is to abreast the three critical arms of agricultural development, i.e. the researchers, the extension workers, and the farmers with the fact that the declining trend of land availability has left us with no alternative except to increase agricultural productivity that too with judicious and planned use of natural resources so as to ensure sustainability. This apparently calls for a long term strategy integrating agricultural development and population policies. I have all praise for ILEIA, a Netherlands based Centre which is doing yeoman service in this direction to propagate low external inputs sustainable agriculture.

The researchers, the extension workers, and the farmers all have jointly to concentrate their efforts on how to make scarce land more viable, more productive, more income generating, and sustainable in agricultural production. Indian experiences have shown that two crop wheat-rice cycle green revolution is no more profitable in today's context. Diversification, therefore, has to be there. Options are many but one has to go in for a preference best suited in terms of the type of land, proximity to the market, and available modes of transport.

The choices range from cash crops like green fodder, dry fodder, vegetables, fruit orchards, pulses, mustard, and grams to animal based enterprises like cattle farming, buffalo farming, fish farming, poultry, piggery, and goat- herd. The integration of crop and livestock production systems thus seems to be the best alternative which can strongly influence the agro-ecological sustainability. Combining animal agriculture with crop systems agriculture is a sure-shot diversification to ensure food security. But, before going in for this shift, there is a need of experimenting these options especially in countries where farmers live in village communities. India is the best example of this kind as it comprises of 600 thousand villages.

World Bank floated the T&V System of Extension with a motto "Grow food, more food, and only food' to increase farmers' income through enhancing management of extension machineries at all levels. Perhaps, they had forgotten that agriculture cannot be talked about without reference to livestock. Because of this lacuna, the T&V System became irrelevant to animal science based extension programs. Many of us, therefore, took up a challenge in the sense that what is then relevant to livestock sciences. This constrained me to coin a new abbreviation known as CATE-System (Comprehensive Agri-livestock Technology & Extension System) of Agricultural Development. This is an unified extension system to provide ready-made modules to: (1) Dairy farmers, (2) Pig farmers, (3) Poultry owners, (4) Cattle farmers, (5) Goat keepers, (6) Fisheries, (7) Vegetable growers, (8) Fruit orchards, (9) Farm forestry, and (10) Crop farming enterprises. For each of these enterprises, the CATE-System will be capable of providing up-to-date advice, information, and agripreneurial (the term borrowed from Prof. Lawrence) training to farmers on breeds and breeding, feeds and forage production, nutrition and balanced ration, animal health care, animal housing and management, and hygienic animal productions and handling. In addition, the CATE-System will provide farmers with information on enterprise costs and benefits which is very crucial to most farmers while making decisions. The CATE-System is three-stage strategy of agricultural development:

CAT + E = System

Whereas "CAT" is the first stage, "E" is the second stage, and "System" is the third stage. It means we have to first develop one acre Comprehensive Agri- livestock Technology Units (CAT-Units) of different enterprises, mainly those 10 as listed above, at one place in the heart of rural communities known as the "CATE-Centre". The idea of setting up of these Units in the rural communities is to become identical of local conditions, to build "Confidence" among rural farmers, and to show the worth of high-tech agri-livestock enterprises in the village environment away from experimental laboratories. Once these Units are established and sufficient cost-benefit data are generated, then the second Stage "E" Extension begins. Those farmers who wish to duplicate any one of these 10 enterprises or those who want all of them or combination of some of them will be identified and helped to develop similar enterprises on their farm land. They will be assisted in procuring loans in collaboration with a lead bank of that particular area. When a sufficient number of CATE farmers have adopted these Units they will be united in the form of "Cooperatives" so as to provide them marketing facilities of their produce. Until then, the CATE-Center will do the marketing function. On duplicating at least 100 CAT-Units on the farmers' land, the benefits accrued to farmers will be analyzed. The success achieved in CATE programs will become the basis of formulating a complete system known as "CATE-System". In order to globalize the idea, it is recommended that at least one CATE-Centre should be established in each country especially in developing countries. The 3rd stage of the "CATE-System" will be floated on receiving the data of the first and second stages from each CATE-Center. This is how globalization of agricultural development through the CATE-System has been conceptualized.

In this System, certain assumptions are implied. First, the CAT-Units will incorporate high-tech of the particular enterprise. Second, the high-tech CAT-Units will be developed under the direct supervision of the scientist concerned. Third, the land on which these CAT Units will be developed should be the ownership property of the CATE-Project, Fourth, the management and administrative control of the CATE-Centres should be independent without interference of any other institution/organization/University. Sixth, FSR and Farmers Participatory approach will be properly guarded while developing CAT-Units. Seventh, farmers training will be the integral component of the System. In order to experiment with the idea of the CATE-System, some international agencies like the World Bank, USAID, USDA, FAO, IFAD, or Winrock International should come forward to finance-the project entitled "Globalization of Agricultural Development Through CATE-System". I am one for taking up the lead in this kind of a project.

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Experiences and Reflections About Extension, Hartmut Albrecht, 1-9.

I have served on the Editorial Board of the JES since 1988. On my recent retirement from the University of Hohenheim, I was asked to reflect upon and share my experiences with Extension. After some 40 years in extension work-, this write up is an effort to reflect and to "share thoughts with the profession". While I am convinced that systematic research is relevant in our field, I am sure that subjective experience and interpretation of "reality" remains decisive. So, some hints about my background shall help for understanding.

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Farmers' Attitudes Toward Soil Conservation: A Comparative Study, Ezatollah Karami & Mohammad B. Lari, 10-26.

Declining fertility of eroded soils and deterioration of water quality and quantity is a significant socio-environmental problem in all geographic regions of the world. The aim of this study is to assess the farmers' attitudes toward soil erosion, to determine the importance of different communication channels-in soil conservation and to explore the frequency of the adoption of soil conservation it] an erosion-prone area of Iran, using a two stage cluster random sample of 265 farmers. In addition, the study uses a secondary data source to compare the characteristics of Iranian and U.S. farmers regarding soil conservation attitudes and behaviours. It is concluded that while farmers of both countries are similar in having a high degree of awareness of soil erosion problems, their differences in socioeconomic characteristics, sources of information, assumed role for government, and appropriate conservation practices used limit the generalisability of findings from one country to another. Therefore, further research is needed to develop soil conservation adoption models for developing countries in general and in Iran in particular.

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Extension Misperceptions: Flawed Objectives in Advice to Farmers-A Brazilian Example, G. A. Frengley, N. Dalmazo & W. J. Sorrenson, 27-44.

Farm management advisors are frequently motivated to improve their client's farm performance by new technical knowledge and changed economic circumstances. Successful advice demands sound knowledge of all factors which influence the decision process. Judgments that rational farm management decisions can be made, based solely on new technology, ignores farmer's personal objectives, resources and capabilities. Brazil's Government agricultural extension service was established post war. University training was technically oriented with little emphasis on financial or farm management system implications, or the objectives of farm families. By the 1980s, the service was failing and in 1988 Federal funding to the States was abandoned. Results of this study indicate that many Brazilian extensionists were mistaken in their belief of the usefulness of new technology for farmer needs. Public funding used for technology transfer and for research was misdirected, suggesting graduate training may have been inappropriate. There are lessons for agricultural research, extension and development in all countries.

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Trends in Chinese Extension, Wang Dehai & A. W. Van Den Ban, 45-56.

This paper examines the agricultural extension system in China which is in transition due to the change from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. The roles of agricultural extension are changing along with the changes of the overall political and economic situation in the country. The model of agricultural extension before the economic reform was administration oriented. During the reform period, this changed to income generation oriented. The objectives of rural development in China can be better achieved if a farmer oriented extension concept is integrated into the extension system.

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Management of Training and Visit (T/V) System An Example From Nigeria, Chris O. Igodan, 57-66.

No other extension system has received so much attention as the Training and Visit (T/V) system. In Nigeria, the T/V has become the extension strategy of the Agricultural Development Projects (ADPS) which over the years has emerged as the most important programme for tackling the country's food and agricultural problem (Patel, 1985). However, peculiarity of conditions in different countries where the system is applied has led to criticisms as regard its feasibility, adaptability and effectiveness; although such criticisms have been largely academic due to sketchy reports from different parts of the world. In this study, an attempt was made to convey the experiences of Kano ADP with application of the T and V - how it is applied, problems associated with the application; and whether or not it has addressed the organization and management problems it was expected to tackle.

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Organizing Innovations In Management of Extension Systems, O. S. Verma and Mahesh Chander, 67-92.

Greater the use of management innovations in organizing day to day affairs greater is the success. This tenet is central to the effectiveness of any system. Extension managers in Indian Extension systems seem to be practicing B' grade management Innovations to the extent of 79 per cent. Their management training is inevitable to make them first grade managers. Of the four Extension Systems [ICAR-ES, AU-ES T&V-ES, and PR-ES], the T&V-ES is found to be the best in managing its men, material, money and machineries. This study draws the conclusion that the bureaucratic system especially in Panchayati Raj and ICAR-ES requires to be overhauled in their style of functioning.

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Agricultural Extension as Adult Education, William M. Rivera, 93-100.

Agricultural extension is generally considered by adult educators to be one of the many different providers of adult education. "The contexts of adult lives are so varied and the needs so numerous that there has emerged a division of labour for the delivery of adult education content among different providers in relation to different specialized constituencies," as Bhola (1989) aptly observes. Agricultural extension's pragmatic, specialized content and its task-oriented field-directed methodologies for providing informational and technology transfer and often other services as well, indeed places this provider (i.e., this multi -institutional provider) in a unique category, so unique in fact that it is often overlooked in discussions of education.

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Last modified: 30 January 2017

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