Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1995, Volume 11(2), December
- Muhamad, M., Teh, S. & Idris, K. Research-Extension Approach: Its Impact on Malaysian Cocoa Smallholders' Technology
- Mohamed, I. E. Reflective appraisal of programs (Rap): In Evaluating the Training and Visit System.
- Fuata'I, L. Agricultural Extension: Related Problems in the South Pacific.
- Stock, T. Farmer Field Schools: Impact for Integrated Pest Management in the Philippines:
Implications for Sustainable Agriculture.
- Igodan, C. O. Nigerian Livestock Sub-sector Extension Strategy for Increasing Livestock Production
in the 1990s.
- Awolola, M. D. Agricultural Development in Nigeria: Farm Education is the Key.
- Verma, O. S. & Regunathan, A. Ego States Behaviour Scale: Devised to Measure Extension Managers Ego.
In reviewing past issues of the Journal of Extension Systems, it suddenly occurred to
me that not a single article has been published concerning extension's youth development
activities or responsibilities. Yet, in more than half the countries of the world,
extension- sponsored youth groups called 4-H, 4-S, 4-C, GYA, or by some other designation
are touching the lives of millions of young people and contributing to the success of
4-H clubs in America originated in the early 1900s as Corn Clubs for boys and Canning
Clubs for girls. They were sponsored primarily by rural school teachers and principals who
questioned the' relevance of public school curricula to country youngsters. Club
activities, which soon merged and expanded to include all crops and livestock, as well as
cooking, sewing and home improvement, stimulated interest in "scientific"
agriculture and encouraged use of improved practices. Success experienced by youth in
growing crops and producing livestock was observed and emulated by their fathers and
neighbours. Thus, youngsters were serving as a means of educating their elders.
As the idea of rural youth organizations took root, assistance was requested and
obtained from Colleges of Agriculture and their Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Experiment stations throughout the Country had been searching for more effective ways to
communicate with farmers of their States. Agricultural clubs seemed to be an ideal
opportunity to pass information to the most receptive part of the farm community, its
inquisitive young people. Soon, contests, demonstrations, fairs and other club activities
were organized which served to further motivate and inspire rural youths.
When the Cooperative Extension Service was formalized in 1914, rural youth activities,
which evolved into 4-H clubs, became a major function of extension personnel along with
agriculture and home economics. Leadership for 4-H clubs was and still is provided by
older members and adults who volunteer their time and expertise in training, assisting and
encouraging youngsters in their project work. As agriculture changed, so did 4-H to
include international activities, social and leadership training, and experiences far
beyond the realm of agriculture and home life for both rural and urban youths. While 4-H
has become an organization that provides members a wide variety of educational
experiences, it has never been considered a vocational training program.
Research conducted at West Virginia University in recent years suggests that 4-H club
members obtain considerable enjoyment from club activities and acquire skills that are
beneficial in their personal, educational and occupational lives. Leadership experiences
provided by 4-H, such as conducting meetings and public speaking, are considered to be of
great value by former members.
Rural youth clubs are found in many countries of the world, and are for the most part,
a responsibility of extension organizations. The question then arises: "Why is there
an absence of research articles concerning rural youth organizations in the Journal of
Extension Systems?" Some fruitful areas for research might include the following:
Is extension adequately promoting and supervising rural youth group activities?
What influences do rural youth activities have on adult farmers and homemakers?
What are the needs of rural and urban youth that can be served by extension-sponsored
What are the political, economic and/or; social constraints on youth group activities?
How can volunteer leaders be recruited and trained in areas where volunteerism is not a
What training is needed by extension agents to adequately administer and advise youth
There are many others. The Journal provides a forum for examination of issues and
concerns unique to extension. Certainly, there are issues and concerns in the area of
rural youth development.
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Research-Extension Approach: Its Impact on Malaysian Cocoa Smallholders'
Technology Utilization, Mazanah Muhamad, Saidin Teh &
Khairruddin Idris, 1-22.
Cocoa is the third main important crop for Malaysia. The government supports the
industry through research and extension. To identify the approach utilized in generating
and disseminating cocoa technology to smallholders, a survey was carried out in Malaysia.
The study also served to assess the utilization of recommended practices. The respondents
consisted of 499 cocoa smallholders selected randomly from six main cocoa growing regions.
The study revealed that the generation and dissemination of cocoa technology utilized the
research-transfer model. Through the training and visit mechanism, a majority of cocoa
farmers do regularly receive recommended practices generated by research institutions. The
utilization of recommended technology is still relatively low Related to this are the
farmers' social economic status and the limitations inherent in the research-transfer
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Reflective appraisal of programs (Rap): In Evaluating the Training and Visit
System, Ismail E. Mohamed, 23-35.
There have been difficulties in conducting evaluations of the widespread World Bank's
Training and Visit (T&V) system in the Third World. Many authors, researchers, and
extension professionals when considered the nature of the evaluation enterprises and the
methods used, found that the T&V evaluations frequently missed technical concerns.
Some authors observed that T&V program evaluations were characterized by vague
evaluation designs, tendency of collecting irrelevant data, and little aggregated
information generated through empirical evaluations of various socio-economic processes
triggered by the T&V extension methodology. This paper examines a series of conceptual
and methodological issues in conducting evaluations of the T&V system and illustrates
them with specific examples. The paper explains the use of the Reflective Appraisal of
Programs (RAP) developed by Bennett (1977) to monitor and evaluate T&V program
activities. The explanation will include an Evaluation Matrix Question (EMQ) framework
based on the RAP and developed by the author to systematically profile T&V program
activities and characteristics, Implications and relevancy of the Bennett's model to the
monitoring and evaluation of the T&V extension method will be drawn and discussed. The
paper also provides examples of information/data, that will be gathered using the proposed
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Agricultural Extension: Related Problems in the South Pacific, Lafita'i Fuata'I, 36-45.
The concept of agricultural extension has had a firm foothold in island countries of
the South Pacific for over sixty years. Curiously, it made its way through the colonial
powers which had assumed control of the tiny island nations after the First World War.
Naturally, most of the colonial powers left, but agricultural extension became part and
parcel of agricultural systems of the islands. A brief look at how agricultural extension
came into being would be a good start into linking it with agricultural extension in the
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Farmer Field Schools: Impact for Integrated Pest Management in the Philippines:
Implications for Sustainable Agriculture, Tim Stock, 46-60.
In the Cordillera region of the Philippines, farmer trainings in Integrated Pest
Management were carried out using discovery-based learning techniques. The main objective
of the trainings was to educate farmers in such a way that they were better equipped to
learn than before. One year later a study was conducted to determine if the FFS had
increased farmers' capacity to learn, and if this had led towards a more sustainable
agriculture. This was to be evidenced by increased understanding of relationships within
the agroecosystem, increased interaction, changes in the ways farmers deal with pests and
increased groupwork. Participatory group activities and semi-structured interviews were
used to gather information. It was determined that the trainings did increase farmers'
capacity to learn. However, without the presence of institutional/policy support, strong
farmers' organization and mechanisms for sustaining participatory research, this will not
lead towards a more sustainable agriculture.
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Nigerian Livestock Sub-sector Extension Strategy for Increasing Livestock
Production in the 1990s, C. O. Igodan, 61-78.
Although Nigeria is the third largest producer of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa, the
research and development in the industry itself is a much recent one. 'Part of the reason
attributable to its slow pace of development is the role extension has played especially
in the strategy it uses in communicating livestock technology to users. This paper
examines in critical detail this sub-sector with a view to innovation for development in
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Agricultural Development in Nigeria: Farm Education is the Key, M. D. Awolola, 79-87.
This study explores evidence from five villages where farm institutes were located in
Kwara State of Nigeria. Idea was to see if there was any impact of Farm Institute
education on the farmers' attitude towards agriculture. contacts with extension agents,
use of agricultural radio programme, and adoption of new farm practices. Findings conclude
that while the gross effect was marginal, interrelations between farm education and
agricultural development was quite substantial.
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Ego States Behaviour Scale: Devised to Measure Extension Managers Ego, O.
S. Verma & A. Regunathan, 88-104.
The ESB-Scale is an instrument devised to study what is happening within an individual.
The P-A-C model of Ego Theory developed by Eric Berne (1910-70) is the background
material. The Scale contains 60 statements representing three types of major Ego: Parent,
Adult, and Child. The instrument is found to be valid and reliable as it measured nothing
other than Ego State Behaviour when tested. The Scale was applied on 54 Extension Managers
and the findings derived the relative strength of these three ego states as P = 30.44 per
cent, A = 21.92 per cent, and C = 47.64 per cent. In order to be in normative behaviour,
Adult Ego State is required to be in maximum strength. But the findings indicate that the
patterned behaviour of extension managers is not balance. The Child Ego is too much,
Parent-Ego is superfluous, and Adult-Ego is too less. This pattern is identical at all
levels of management and is static in almost all the situations. This imbalance state of
mind is bound to lead things in wrong direction. Corrective measures are, therefore,
inevitable preferably through TA Workshops.
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