Journal of Extension Systems

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1994, Volume 10(1), June

L. D.  Lawrence, Editorial

  1. Duvel, G. H. A Model For Adoption Behaviour: Analysis in Situation Surveys.
  2. Bennett, C. F. A New Interdependence Model: Implications for Extension Education.
  3. Arene, C. J. Discriminant Analysis of Small-Holder Farmer Adoption Potentials and the Prediction of Extension Cost in Nigeria: A Comparative Enterprise Perspective.
  4. Anwar, M. & Lawrence, L. D. Environmental Concerns in Rural Pakistan: Agriculturalists Speak Out.
  5. Verma, O. S. & Saha, G. S. Participative Management: A Study of Development Administrators.
  6. Boone, E. J., Pettitt, J. & Safrit, R. D. Program Evaluation in Extension.

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How it Happened: The Journal Story

The Journal of Extension Systems was a seed planted in 1984, mainly by Dr. Niels Roling of the Netherlands, in the mind of Dr. 0. S. Verma of India, who nurtured it to reality and brought out the first edition in 1985. Dr. Roling had sent a student to the National Dairy Research Institute to study agricultural extension under the direction of Dr. Verma and, in correspondence, had noted that there was no journal in extension education in which research in the area could be published. Dr. Roling pointed out that existing journals dealing with extension were not research oriented, thus, there were few outlets for such articles and little exchange of research findings.

Dr. Verma, caught up in the challenge, gave the matter much thought. If he were to initiate such a journal, should it be national or international in scope? What procedures were required in order to publish a journal in India? Who should be involved? How much would it cost? And how could a venture of this nature be financed? Over a period of several months, and following discussions and correspondence with many extension educators around the world, answers to these questions began to become clear,

An editorial board would be formed to assist in making policy decisions. Correspondents recommended board members who were considered influential in agricultural extension. Selections were made so that various regions of the world would be represented on the board. Initially, 14 board members were selected and, when asked, agreed to serve. Initial membership on the board consisted of Dr. J. Paul Leagans, Dr. Herbert F. Lionberger, and Dr. Max K. Lowdermilk, all of the USA; Dr. S. V. Supe, Dr. R. K. Sharma, and Dr. S. Venku Reddy, all of India; Dr. H. Stuart Hawkins of Australia; Dr. Harri Westermarck of Finland; Dr. K. E. Wellington of Jamaica; Dr. Yona Friedman of France; Dr. Luke Jin-Chang Im of Korea; Prof. K. V. Runcie of Scotland; Dr. Md. Ameerul Islam of Bangladesh; mid Dr. Niels Roling of die Netherlands. Dr. Lionberger was asked to serve as chairman of the board, but since he bad retired he suggested the appointment of Dr. Roling who subsequently accepted the assignment.

Dr. Verma found that he must file an application with the Government of India to publish a journal. Initial papers were filed to initiate a publication called Journal of Extension Management. The application was refused as that title had been allotted to the National Institute for Agricultural Extension Management. A second application was submitted using the name, Journal of Extension System, which was approved. However, Dr. Hawkins strongly encouraged the addition of an "s" on system, thereby changing the title to Journal of Extension Systems. The suggestion was accepted, an application for modification of the name was filed, and the current title was approved and came into being.

Accepting articles which had been solicited by or submitted by board members and others, the inaugural issue, with a date of December, 1985, was released on January 1, 1986. One thousand copies were published, financed by Dr. Verma himself, and mailed to potential subscribers. Nearly 200 subscriptions were received during the first year of publication, about half from within India and half from overseas subscribers. Early issues accepted advertising from various farm input suppliers. Later, advertisements were restricted to academic matters.

Most articles accepted for publication have been research based and mostly with content of interest to the international audience. Current subscriptions number about 450 mid 500 copies of each issue are published. Three different printing establishments have been used in printing the first 10 volumes. The first delayed publication of an issue for eight months; the second was poorly equipped and printing quality was poor.

Currently, 20 board members assist in policy decisions, with Dr. Roling serving as chairman. Dr. Verma is the chief Editor, and recently Dr. Layle Lawrence of West Virginia University, USA, was appointed Editor to assist in article selection and editorial matters.

Although many people have contributed to its success, the Journal exists because of the personal sacrifice and great efforts of one individual-Dr. 0. S. Verma. What would he like to see the Journal become? He wants it to become more appealing, more attuned to the international scene, and of greater value to agricultural extension personnel throughout the world (and he wants board members and readers to suggest ways those desires can be brought about). He wants to maintain a publication devoted to research and model building in extension. And he would like to see subscriptions increase to 1,000 per issue. Although several readers have suggested that the Journal become a quarterly publication, such a move would require a considerable increase in resources and assistance.

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A Model For Adoption Behaviour: Analysis in Situation Surveys, Gustav H. Duvel, 1-32.

The promotion of adoption behaviour or effective technology transfer in agricultural development revolves around the human being or farmer as key dimension. However, there is as yet no generally and interdisciplinary acceptable theory of behaviour change and, especially, one that is of value to the practitioner, and this in spite of the fact that many disciplines are primarily concerned with the study of human behaviour. This paper identifies and briefly discusses traditional approaches in extension and the theories regarded as offering the most promising possibilities. Against that background, a new model is suggested that is based on the assumption that certain intervening variables have a direct influence on adoption behaviour, whilst the influence of the more independent variables only becomes manifested in behaviour via the intervening variables, allowing a short-cut and practical access to behaviour analysis and its systematic intervention or change. The different variables (mostly needs and perceptions) and their dimensions are discussed and empirical findings presented that illustrate their predictive value.

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A New Interdependence Model: Implications for Extension Education, Claude F. Bennett, 33-45.

Extension in United States is part of a complex of public sector agencies and private sector organization. This complex generates, conveys, and uses technologies and practices to meet selected needs of the public and individuals. A new interdependence model identifies 15 generic roles within this public sector/private sector complex. Extension and four other element.,-, of the complex-Research, Industry, and Intermediate as well as End Users of technologies and practices-share a majority of these generic roles. Extension roles must complement those of the other four entities in the public/private sector complex so as to maximize the overall effectiveness of the complex. The new interdependence model promotes such complementarity by identifying the roles and aspects of roles in which Extension has a comparative advantage. The model suggests that Extension in the United States has a comparative advantage in performing the role of education rather than the role of transfer. Thus, Extension should conduct more education, and link it with the transfer of selected practices and technologies.

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Discriminant Analysis of Small-Holder Farmer Adoption Potentials and the Prediction of Extension Cost in Nigeria: A Comparative Enterprise Perspective, C. J. Arene, 46-58.

This study attempts to apply discriminant function analysis technique to small-holder maize, rice, and poultry fan-net adoption potentials hi Anambra State of Nigeria. The result shows that in pushing out production input packages to maize farmers the extension agency should focus attention on one major adoption characteristic, i.e., gross annual income of such farmers. This characteristic alone is responsible for about 99. 94 per cent of the predictive power of the function developed for the farmers. The chances of belonging to one group (low adoption) will increase when this characteristic decreases in magnitude while the chances of belonging to the other group (high adoption) will increase when this characteristic increases in magnitude. In the case of rice farmers, attention should be focused on credit, age, and household size of such farmers which alone are responsible for about 99. 90 per cent of the predictive power of the function developed for them. The chances of belonging to one group (low adoption) will increase as household size increases in magnitude while the chances of belonging to the other group (high adoption) will increase as credit (size of loan), and age of farmers increase in magnitude. And in the case of poultry farmers, attention should be focused on credit, age, level of formal education and household size. The chances of belonging to one group (low adoption) will increase as credit and level of formal education decrease in magnitude while the chances of belonging to the other groups (high adoption) will increase as age and household size decrease in magnitude. The classification performances of the functions, which are about 92 per cent for maize and rice farmers respectively and 76 percent for poultry farmers, are not sufficiently high to alleviate the fears associated with misclassification error. The results will, no doubt, be improved by searching for more discriminating characteristics.

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Environmental Concerns in Rural Pakistan: Agriculturalists Speak Out, Mohammad Anwar & Layle D. Lawrence, 59-68.

Environmental degradation has become a world-wide concern. Pressure on agriculture to produce more to feed an ever-growing population places increasing stress on the environment. This study was an effort to determine agriculture's contribution to the problem in the eyes of farmers, agro-chemicals sales personnel, research scientists and extension personnel in Pakistan, a country with dense population, low literacy rate, small land holdings and lack of environment information and regulations.

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Participative Management: A Study of Development Administrators, O. S. Verma & G. S. Saha, 69-86.

The team work culture in Indian development departments seems to be lacking as the findings of this study show that the participative management is practised by the development administrators only to the extent of 56.33 per cent. The study carried out in five development oriented organizations with 200 development administrators further shows that middle road grid system of participative management is followed by 88 per cent development administrators where they are moderately concerned for both the work output and the people's welfare. These findings indicate that the development administrators are in tune with the managerial grid of Blake and Mouton (1954). Thirdly, the study also found that Hersey & Blanchard (1977) "situational leadership model" is not appropriately followed in practice by the development administrators. All the three angles of participative management attempted in this study conclude that the management training of development administrators especially at lower hierarchies is the need of the hour in the practice of participative management.

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Program Evaluation in Extension, Edgar J. Boone, John Pettitt & R. Dale Safrit, 87-121.

Program evaluation holds many different meanings for extensionists throughout the world. Contrary to the myths held and adhered to by many well-intentioned extensionists, program evaluation is not a process or task that is designed and undertaken after a program has been completed. Rather, program evaluation begins with the conceptualization and design of the program, continues through implementation of the program, and terminates in an assessment of the impact of the program. Thus, program evaluation as conceptualized and defined in this paper is viewed as a continuing, planned assessment process that is embodied in and requisite to every major decision or choice made by extensionists in planning and designing programs, implementing programs, and in identifying and assessing the outcomes or impacts that are directly attributable to the planned program. This broader concept of program evaluation, which has garnered and continues to garner support from such international experts as Rossi and Freeman, Cronbach, Stufflebeam, Patton, Steele, and others, focuses on both process and product and, more importantly, the interrelatedness and interdependence of the two.

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