Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1993, Volume 9(1), June
L. D. Lawrence, Editorial
- Asmuni, A. Japanese Agricultural Extension System: It's Relevance to Developing Countries.
- Lawrence, L. D. & Umar, M. Methods of Reaching Consensus: A South Islands Experience.
- Oliveira, M. B. Communication Strategies for Agricultural Development in the Third World.
- Rivera, W. M. Challenges to Agricultural Extension: Employ Women As Professional And Develop
Programs For Women In Agriculture A Global Perspective.
- Ziaul Karim, A. S. M. & Mahboob, S. G. Subject Matter Officers Under T&V System in Bangladesh: Influence of Job-related
and Attitudinal Factors on Job-performance.
- Ogunfiditimi, T. O. Abandoned Adoption: Why Adopters Discontinued use of Previously Adopted Innovations.
- Zijp, W. From Agricultural Extension to Rural: Information Management.
Extension education, in various forms and with various names, has existed for more than
a century. For the most part, extension has emphasized agricultural development. And for
good reason. Food security is a major concern of every society. No country wants to be
dependent on another for something as basic as food. With the technological breakthroughs
of the 1950s, 60s and 70s, it appeared that sufficient agricultural production might be
possible so that every country could be self-reliant. Unfortunately, it was not to be.
Technological breakthroughs. Extension personnel throughout the world claim to be in
the business of "technology transfer." Technology is the application of science
in solving problems. There's a truism that goes, "When you solve one problem you
create a dozen new ones." This has been the unexpected effect of technology of all
types. For example, major advances in health, nutrition and food safety have extended the
life span and the reproductive years of people throughout the world, which have led to an
explosive increase in population. Population pressures, in turn, particularly in many of
the underdeveloped countries, have placed excessive demands on agricultural production
which have resulted in harmful farming practices, overgrazing, and the tillage of fragile
lands unsuitable for farming. As a consequence, soil erosion, waterlogging, deforestation
fertility depletion, desertification, and a number of other environmental and social
problems have arisen in recent years which have a negative -impact on food production. Use
and overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, inputs largely responsible for
production increases in recent years, have polluted surface and ground water supplies in
some areas. In addition, use of livestock growth stimulants and pesticide scares have
created great anxiety among consumers about the safety of available foods. Food security
is further compounded by politics, economics, cultural shifts, population migration, trade
imbalances, weather and monetary policies. If extension is to "help people to help
themselves" in solving the problems, job security for extension personnel
should be assured in perpetuity. But is it?
Agricultural extension and advisory services throughout the world face two dilemmas
that are diametrically opposed. In the developed world, there is widespread belief that
agricultural extension has succeeded too well and is no longer necessary; that farmers
have already produced too much, therefore, there's no reason for government to help them
to produce any more. Further, critics claim that any information needed by farmers is
readily available from a variety of private and commercial sources. To a large extent, the
same attitude prevails regarding the need for continued agricultural research.
On the other hand, in many if not most countries of the developing world, there is a
strong belief among government officials at the highest levels that agricultural extension
is a very costly and largely ineffective bloated organization and that personnel in it are
essentially welfare recipients. They claim there are few, if any, results to show for the
enormous investment made in extension services. A similar skepticism about the value of
agricultural research also exists.
And day by day, population growth and environmental degradation continues. The world's
population currently stands at some 5.5 billion people and is expected to increase to 6.1
billion by the year 2000 and to 8.2 billion by 2025, 49% more than current numbers in only
31 years! can food production keep up with population growths And will it be available to
those who need it? Will new technologies, such as biotechnology, dramatically increase
production? And what new and unforeseen problems will they bring with them?
What does all this mean to readers of the Journal? Among other things, it means that
there are a number of critical issues confronting extension-agricultural, social,
economic,. and cultural-all crying and vying for attention. There's also the question of
extension's survival itself. Considerable confusion and anxiety exists among extension
personnel around the world regarding extension's role and future. The Journal is unique in
that it provides a global forum in which these issues and concerns might be examined,
discussed and debated. How extension responds and adapts to present day challenges and can
document its contribution to the well-being of the world's nations during the next few
years will determine its fate. Your contributions to the Journal can play a part in
helping to assure extension's future as an effective and essential institution.
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Japanese Agricultural Extension System: It's Relevance to Developing Countries,
Azizan Asmuni, 1-24.
The extension system of Japan is examined with the purpose of analysing its
developmental changes from the modernisation of agriculture during the Meiji Era to the
post-war period in response to changes in economic situation and agricultural policy, and
its relevance to developing countries in implementing extension. It is found that the new
extension took-off with strong intervention capacity prioritised by the government and
based on internal capability and past experience. The sensitivity response to changes in
extension role, strategy and approach, to comprehensive extension, instead of dismantling
farmer institution to suit policy aims eventually succeeded in developing a complete
portfolio of productivity enhancement institution.
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Methods of Reaching Consensus: A South Islands Experience, Layle D. Lawrence & Mohammed Umar, 25-32.
Quality decisions are more likely to come from groups than from individuals. At the
same time, those who are affected will be more likely to react in a positive manner if
they have had an opportunity to democratically participate in the decision-making process.
When collective decisions are made, each participant feels some sense of ownership in
their outcomes. This article deals with two methods of obtaining consensus by groups: a
modified Delphi approach and the nominal group technique.
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Communication Strategies for Agricultural Development in the Third World,
Maria Cristina Bastos Oliveira, 33-51.
The paper reviews current participatory communication strategies being used by donor
agencies as part of their agricultural development interventions in third world countries.
More specifically, the paper: (1) discusses existing approaches to using communication as
a component within development programs, the so called development communication; (2)
analyzes the role of public communication campaigns in agricultural development; and (3)
reviews two participatory communication strategies proposed by FAO and USAID.
respectively, as a means for bringing about agricultural development in third world
countries: the Strategic Extension Campaigns (SEC) and the Communication for
Technology Transfer in Agriculture (CTTA). It stresses the fact that the emphasis on
participatory development processes has called upon new approaches to communication. In
this context, development communication is providing, an interesting framework used to
accelerate die agricultural development process in developing, country settings.
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Challenges to Agricultural Extension: Employ Women As Professional And Develop
Programs For Women In Agriculture A Global Prespective, William M. Rivera,
One challenge to agricultural extension is to employ women as professionals and thereby
contribute to their empowerment through greater involvement in public institutions
designed to advance agricultural development. A related challenge for extension is to
develop programs targeted for women working in agriculture. In this paper, we focus on
these two challenges. In reviewing the literature, we note consistent concepts about
agriculture and women and find eleven compelling areas of study. On the basis of an
examination of the literature and an analytic discussion, we underline seven actions aimed
at integrating and empowering women in the agriculture sector through the agency of
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Subject Matter Officers Under T&V System in Bangladesh: Influence of
Job-related and Attitudinal Factors on Job-performance, A. S. M. Ziaul Karim
& S. G. Mahboob, 74-85.
The purpose of this paper was to determine and describe the effects and contributions
of 15 selected job-related and attitudinal. factors on/to job performance of the Subject
Matter Officers under T&V Extension System of Bangladesh. Data were collected by
interview procedure from a sample of 114 SMOs of 22 randomly selected Districts under
Extension & Research Project-II. Stepwise multiple correlation analysis indicates that
out of 15 independent factors, only two (total service tenure and sub-block visit) are
found to have significant effect on job performance. Regression co-efficient between
supervisor's relation and job performance approached very close to the significance level
(Q 05). The combined effect of three independent variables caused 46 percent variation in
job performance. Some of the independent variables could not enter into the regression
equation possibly due to the problem of multi-collinearity among the independent
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Abandoned Adoption: Why Adopters Discontinued use of Previously Adopted
Innovations, T. O. Ogunfiditimi, 86-91.
Evidence abound now that most adopters of new innovations especially in the developing
countries tend to set aside temporarily of totally abandon such innovations over a period
of time. The reasons for this unusual phenomenon have not caught the attention of most
modern social research scientists This article made an attempt to explore the reasons for
this withdrawal syndrome by adopters. 200 farmers (Adopters) were; interviewed. They had
participated in the adoption exercise of maize and cassava in 0yo State. and cocoa in Ondo
State which they later set aside, The Multiple Regression Statistical Model was used and
fourteen basic reasons for "Abandoned-Adoption" were identified.
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From Agricultural Extension to Rural: Information Management, Willem Zijp, 92-116.
Information is an essential production factor in agriculture. Farmers need information
to improve or adapt their farming. Farmers need extension only to the extent that it can
provide them with relevant and timely information. Farmers will only pay for extension if
the information is not obtainable for free and if they perceive the marginal benefits to
be greater than the marginal costs. The distinction between information and extension is
relevant, because information is much wider than extension. Information is what farmers
talk about with their wife or husband, their neighbours. It is what they hear from radio,
what they read and hear from extension.
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