|Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1993, Volume 9(2), December
S. Jamal, Editorial
- Lowdermilk, M. K. Irrigation Management: Extensions' Problem or opportunity.
- Garforth, C. Rural People's organizations: and Extension Communication in Northern Thailand.
- Kulander, G. & Delman, J. Getting to the Grassroots: Human Resource Development for Agricultural Extension in
- Jamal, S. A Skill Test for Farm Women: Clean Milk Production.
For quite sometime, I was thinking to share my views about the nomenclature of
Extension discipline. I am thankful to Dr. O. S. Verma who thought provokingly encouraged
me to write my views in the editorial of this esteemed journal. These days, the
nomenclature of Extension discipline has practically become hotch-potch mainly due to
jugllary of words emerging day by day. Whereas, the discipline's contents &
methodology, curriculum & field of knowledge are almost the same, the nomenclature
differs from region to region, organisation to organisation, subject matter to subject
matter discipline, and even from one professional to another. In some of the developing
countries like India, variation is so great that even two universities do not have the
identical name of the discipline. For example, the oldest Agriculture University in India
"G. B. Pant University of Agriculture of Technology, Pantnagar (U.P.)" has got
the name Department of Agricultural Communication & Extension offering Master's and
Doctoral degree. Another equally important university, Punjab Agricultural University,
Ludhiana, has two separate departments, i.e., Department of Extension Education, and
Department of Home Science Education & Extension. Both these departments are offering
Master's and Doctoral degree. In some other universities like Chandra Shekhar Azad
University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur (U.P.), they call it Department of
Agricultural Extension. In traditional universities, there are three nomenclatures, i.e.,
Department of Adult Education & Extension, Department of Distance Education, and
Department of Home Science Education & Extension.
In ICAR system, the Extension discipline is recognised by the Institute name. For
instance, at IARL New Delhi, it is Agricultural Extension because it is agricultural
institute, At NDRI, Karnal, it is called as Dairy Extension because it is dairy institute.
At CIFE, Bombay, it is called as Fisheries Extension because it is fishery institute. At
IVRI, Izatnagar, it was earlier used to be called as Division of Extension, then Animal
Science Extension, and now with the pressure of professionals like Dr. 0. S. Verma it is
changed to Extension Education, which is somehow more logical. All these 4 institutes
under the ICAR system are deemed to be universities.
In developed countries, the variation is still large. In America, it is called by many
names like Agricultural Extension, Extension Education, Agricultural Education &
Extension, Community Education, Adult Education & Extension. In Canada, it is termed
as Department of Rural Extension Studies. In Australia, professionals say that it is
Agricultural Extension & Management. In U.K., it is Department of Agricultural
Extension & Rural Development. In the Netherlands, Professor Niels Roling has come up
with the term as Extension Science which seems to be more universal. And somewhere around
the globe, this discipline is being changed by altogether different name as Transfer of
All these variations lead one to believe as if there are different disciplines under
the trade name of Extension. Because of this hotch-potch situation, many professionals are
at disadvantaged position and some are enjoying the large share of the cake. Many
professionals have suffered in their career advancement mainly because of this stigma. I
cite my own example here where I have suffered the most. I did B.Sc. Home Science (G. B.
Pant, University, Pantnagar), M.Sc. Agricultural Communication & Extension (G.B. Pant
University, Pantnagar) and Ph.D. in Extension Education (IVRI, Izatnagar). With this
background, when I apply for some Teaching/Research position, I am denied in the interview
that I do not possess B.Sc. Agriculture degree. Similarly, when I go to college of Home
Science for a position, I am deprived of the offer in the interview itself on the pretext
that I am not M.Sc./Ph.D. in Home Science Extension. It means practically I am no where.
Here, I want to raise a question as to why I and my other colleagues of the similar
background are being discriminated against while subject matter taught, courses, and
curriculum have been eventually the same and at par with those who are B.Sc. Agriculture
or B.V.Sc. This dilemma necessitates that Extension Fraternity should sit together on a
common platform and decide the universal nomenclature which should be identical all over
the world as has been in the case of other disciplines of Basic Sciences & Humanities,
and Pure Sciences.
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Irrigation Management: Extensions' Problem or opportunity, Max K. Lowdermilk, 1-32.
Irrigation Management, a relatively new applied discipline, has come of age. Most of
the sites for new irrigation systems have been used. Increasingly, there are fewer lands
with high irrigation potential. These factors plus the high post of new irrigation systems
and generally poor system performance have led more and more countries to adopt programs
of irrigation management. The International Institute of Irrigation Management other
international centers of excellence, large donor agencies and most irrigation
professionals agree that performance of existing irrigation systems can be greatly
improved. Irrigation Management (IM) is now recognized as an essential emphasis for
accelerated agricultural development. Irrigation Management is and will continue to make a
solid contribution towards improving irrigation system performance world-wide. Irrigation
management like agricultural extension is an interdisciplinary process by nature.
Strangely, agricultural extension has yet to realize the opportunities which irrigation
management provide in the transfer of irrigation knowledge and technologies to water
users. Unfortunately, with few exceptions in higher income nations, irrigation management
has been neglected by agricultural extension professionals. Agricultural and irrigation
ministries most often have viewed irrigation management in terms of a competitive domain.
Comparative data in this article combined with several decades of experience suggest how
irrigation management provides an important opportunity for extension professionals
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Rural People's organizations: and Extension Communication in Northern Thailand,
Chris Garforth, 33-64.
Communication theory offers a range of conceptual frameworks within which communication
processes in the context of extension activities can be studied. Two which have had strong
influences portray communication as "flows of information" and "interaction
within networks" respectively. Data from a study in northern Thailand are used to
explore the insights these two perspectives offer into the benefits of extension agencies'
working with and through local groups and organisations. Members of rural people's
organisations potentially benefit from an increased flow of information from extension
agents compared to those who are not members; while the structure and activities of the
organisation offer the chance of increased interaction among the members. However,
participation by members in the organisation's activities is not automatic: extension
agents and local leaders can take action to enhance the amount and quality of
communication that takes place. For this, they need training. Recent policy changes which
require field level extension staff to work almost exclusively through formal groups haw
left non-members relatively isolated from networks and channels of communication. The two
conceptual frameworks are shown to be not competing and incompatible paradigms, but
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Getting to the Grassroots: Human Resource Development for Agricultural
Extension in China, Greg Kulander & Jorgen Delman, 65-132.
Based on the assumption that the quality of the human resources in an agricultural
extension oraganization is a determining factor in its success or failure, the article
identifies some of the major issues facing human resource development in the agricultural
extension system in China.
The article is based on fresh quantitative and qualitative data. Cases are presented of
a select representative agricultural extension organization, the National Agro-Technology
Extension Centre (NATEC) organization under the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, and its
subsidiary in Renshoucounty, Sichuan province. It is argued that the formal a gricultural
education sector may experience difficulties in supplying die required number of
professionals needed to sustain the accelerated agricultural development China desires,
and that agricultural extension may suffer in particular, since employment in rural areas,
particularly at field level, is considered unattractive by graduates of agricultural
institutions. Furdiermore, the brain drain from the agricultural sector paired with an
irrational manpower development structure in die agricultural extension organization
prevents sufficient interaction between farmers and well-educated professional extension
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A Skill Test for Farm Women: Clean Milk Production, Shagafta Jamal, 133-138.
A test was developed to measure skills in clean milk production. Milk production
activity was classified as skilled as it has more than ten sequential steps to be
performed. Using the procedure for measuring psychomotor variables, all the steps
recommended to perform the skill in a systematic and sequential order were listed so that
each step was clearly identifiable, observable and mutually exclusive of the other steps.
These steps will become observation points at the time of actually measuring the
competence of die performer of die skill in terms of accuracy. The list was referred to
fifty two experts to assign separate scores to each step on its relative importance and
operational difficulty in carrying it out. The mean scores were then pooled to get die
final assigned score for each step. The coefficients of reliability and validity were
found to be 0.92 and 0.96, respectively.
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