Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1991, Volume 7(2), December
H. F. Lionberger, Editorial
- Halim, A. Technology Transfer in Asia: A Model with Reference to
- Venkatesan, N. World Bank's Agricultural Services
Initiative in Africa: Main Issues and Future Strategy.
- Gill, D. S. Economic Returns to Expenditures on Agricultural
- Awolola, M. D. Use of Agrochemicals in Nigeria: Farmer's
Education, Farm Size, and Income as Determinants.
- Varma, O.S. & B. S. Malik. Rural Down-Troddens: Pinning
Hopes on Dairying for Survival.
- Rivera, W. M. Concepts and Frameworks in International
Agricultural Extension: An Academic Review.
- Asiabaka, C. C. An Appraisal of the Job, Environmental and
Family Related Stress: Factors Among Block Extension Supervisors in Nigeria.
- Alamgir Hossain, S. M., B. R. Crouch & S. Chamala. Economic
Aspects of Interpersonal Communication: A Choice for Extension Work.
- Swamy, S. B. & G. Perumal. Need Achievement and
Job-Performance: Important Components of Agricultural Production.
As I read the letters to the editor in June-1990 issue and note the laudatory comments
and the professional commitments made, the kind of professional people involved and take
note of their published articles, and the references cited, I am reminded of the
invaluable networking role this journal has come to serve; namely, one of idea exchange,
communication facilitation, and personal contact formation among on-job professional
dedicated to improved extension operation and management through information exchange both
from research and in-field experience. I can think- of no force more powerful in the
advancement of a cause than such a network of interacting proponents who are individually
responsible for and dedicated to making the cause work in their own balewichs. Thanks to
Dr. Verma for his indispensable role in getting JES started, but for some time now, it has
been in the process of becoming increasingly ours; even so our continuing thanks to him.
Certainly, the JES is in a position to serve a unique and crucial role in the matter of
technology transfer and/or research extension management. Now, more than at any time in
the past, there is a contingent of research-extension oriented professionals who are
concerned with and contributing to knowledge in this area. The locus of this effort has
moved from isolated individuals like Havelock and Lionberger to the ISNAR centered purpose
and its contingent of able researchers who have published a valuable series of short
to-the-point utilitarian treaties on the subject. Concern with the research-extension
systems in the context of research-extension effort is an absolute must in developmental
efforts as a variable; a subject that has been neglected for too long. A central figure in
this effort, and an otherwise experienced and very well prepared academically is Prof.
Niels Roling. He is also a central figure in developing research-extension systems
inter-personal professional networks. The ISNAR as a foundation concerned with technology
transfer is an important part of research-extension system institution building
communication effort, somewhat as USAID has done for Communication Development Report.
I am happy that much needed journal appears to be off to a good start. The JES is
publishing some very good articles. With an increasing number of professionals doing good
work in the field of agricultural research and extension systems, journal
article-manuscripts are both here and in prospect. Although I am going to start acting
more retired, I will still retain a commitment to the JES and its intended purpose this
notwithstanding that I have been awarded a Sesquicentennial Professorship. Even at the age
of 78, I prize it highly because my university-wise colleagues recommended me for the
award (accorded to retired Professors out of several hundred). Otherwise, it means mostly
that a few of us don't have sense enough to know when to retire.
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Halim, A. Technology Transfer in Asia: A Model with
Reference to Bangladesh, 3-27.
A structural model for technology transfer in Asian Developing Countries like
Bangladesh is proposed in this article. Four tiers at National, District, Sub-district and
Unit level are suggested in this model. A corresponding functional chart for each tier is
briefly described keeping in view its flexibility for different situations and countries.
As basis for developing a model and functional chart, the historical growth and
development of agricultural development programmes in seven Asian countries with special
reference to Bangladesh are critically analyzed. The proposed structure has emphasized
more on operational mechanism instead of organization. Maximum emphasis has been given at
the grass-root or the unit level which is the closest tier with the farm and field. Two
factors were found common for successful technology development and transfer. One is
integration of research, extension and farmers' participation and the other is strong
farmers' organization at the grass root level. South Korean example in restructuring the
unit, Taiwan model for budgeting and money allocation, and some elements of "comilla
Approach" of Bangladesh were considered in designing the model. Innovative farmers
were considered as alternative source of technology generation in the model. Small benefit
in wider areas and quick adoption of innovations are recognized as the important element
in the technology transfer mechanism.
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Venkatesan, N. World Bank's Agricultural Services
Initiative in Africa: Main Issues and Future Strategy, 28-43.
This paper describes the experience gained so far with the implementation of the World
Bank supported extension projects in African countries based on the Training and Visit
(T&V) system. It discusses the emerging second generation issues in extension, and
presents the future strategy for addressing these issues. The paper also examines the
Bank's role in assisting the countries to consolidate professional extension, and
recommends a future strategy to improve such assistance.
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Gill, D. S. Economic Returns to Expenditures on Agricultural
Extension System, 44-61.
In the post world War 11 period, there has been a relatively large commitment of
financial and human resources in the establishment and operation of agricultural extension
services worldwide. More recently, there has been an increasing amount of concern at the
policy level about returns to this investment. The present review of research addresses
itself to this question. In spite of the large scale investment in extension services, the
author found that there are relatively fewer studies available which directly and
accurately measure the impact of extension on farm productivity. This points towards a
need and a rationale for an increased input of research resources in this area. Such an
effort will improve the methodological sophistication and accuracy of results. Earlier
studies in this area looked at the combined impact of research and extension because of
the complementaritics between them. Some of the research reviewed measured the impact of
extension and farmer education (which substitutes extension up to certain levels) on farm
productivity. The results of those studies which measure extension impact point largely in
one direction with minor variations, i.e., that investment in extension services have
significant and positive returns. As reported in the analysis, the magnitude of returns
varies widely from study to study. The returns to extension also vary between crops and
farm enterprises as well as from one region to another. Methodological shortcomings
notwithstanding there is enough evidence in the review to inform public policy that
returns to investment in extension education are reasonable and perhaps compare favourably
with expenditures on other public services.
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Awolola, M. D. Use of Agrochemicals in Nigeria: Farmer's
Education, Farm Size, and Income as Determinants, 62-68.
The present study with 300 farmers of five villages in Irepodun Local Government Area
of Kwara State relates three socio-economic factors with the use of agrochemicals such as
herbicides, pesticides, insecticides, and fertilizers. On the basis of simple
cross-tabulations, it is found that the educational status, farm size, and income are
positively associated with farmers' use of agrochemicals. The study further reveals that
adoption of agrochemicals is related to the type of education a farmer has. For example,
farmers who have secondary and post-secondary education used more agrochemicals than
illiterates and adult educated farmers. The implication here is that agricultural
development involves a sequence of innovations and adjustments which increasingly demand a
more sophisticated and better educated farming community. For a successful agricultural
development, extension agents are advised to team up with the farmers so as to identify
and solve their farm problems.
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Varma, O. S. & B. S. Malik. Rural Down-Troddens:
Pinning Hopes on Dairying for Survival, 69-73.
India's poverty alleviation programmes have not substantially reduced the poverty of
rural down troddens.4 This is mainly because these programmes were not in perfect
consonance with the interest of rural poors. This is evident by the findings of this study
which reveal that the majority of down-troddens in rural areas is more lean towards
Dairying as their avocation whereas the budgetary emphasis has always been in favour of
crop enterprises; an agricultural bias which has resulted in some sort of a fatigue.
Although this study also suggests that agriculture is still the top priority of rural
poors as their main source of livelihood, yet they are not contended with the incomes
derived from crop enterprises. The Dairying is, therefore, preferred the most suitable
avocation for their survival. All the seven categories of rural down troddens (Small
farmers = 100, marginal farmers = 100, landless agricultural labourers = 100, harijans =
100, sweepers = 100, and backwards = 100) selected from five localities (Western U.P.,
hilly-track of Himchal Pradesh, plains of Haryana and Punjab, semiarid zone of Rajasthan,
and chambal area of Madhya Pradesh) have expressed that they need full-time productive
employment in crop enterprises with dairying as their avocation so that the duo could
generate sufficient incomes for the survival of their families. This is perhaps the only
way to raise the level of living of 271 million people who are below the poverty line (Rs.
101.80 per capita per month).
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Rivera, W. M. Concepts and Frameworks in International
Agricultural Extension: An Academic Review, 74-86.
This paper scans four major areas of interest to the discipline and practice of
agricultural extension. First, it reviews three concepts, each of which seeks to shape the
meaning of agricultural extension in a distinct manner. Then, it examines several country
structures of agricultural extension systems as these differ in their political
arrangements, Third, it itemizes the main factors for successful extension organization
and management. Finally, it enumerates the guidelines for successful extension field
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Asiabaka, C. C. An Appraisal of the Job, Environmental
and Family Related Stress: Factors Among Block Extension Supervisors in Nigeria,
The study assessed the job, environmental, personal and/or family related stress
factors that affect Block Extension Supervisors in the Imo State Agricultural Development
Project. Thirty-seven factors were identified. Findings show that all these factors were
stressful. However, data analysis indicated that cost of living, poor salaries, financial
responsibilities, and policies and regulations of the project showed moderate to high
stress. Low stress factors lie around children, poor recreational facilities, and
religious activities. About thirty per cent variation in the perception of stress factors
was accounted for by the level of education of the supervisor.
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Alamgir Hossain, S. M., B. R. Crouch & S. Chamala. Economic
Aspects of Interpersonal Communication: A Choice for Extension Work, 96-110.
Economic hierarchy and information flow on two significant farming problems, namely,
the High Yielding Varieties (HYV) of rice and treatment of sick cattle was examined. The
study showed that the opinion leaders were spread among four economic status groups in the
villages studied. Economic status was not a barrier in seeking consultation for sick
cattle treatment. However, for the HYV of rice cultivation, lower economic status
respondents had a tendency of upward communication. In contrast, higher economic status
farmers either communicated horizontally or had contacts outside the sampled villages.
Finally, Distance Matrix method was employed to locate the most cost-effective person(s)
in the interpersonal information linking process. Development agencies should place
greater emphasis on communication with non-technical groups, particularly opinion leaders,
in disseminating farming facts and helping farmers applying them.
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Swamy, S. B. & G. Perumal. Need Achievement and
Job-Performance: Important Components of Agricultural Production, 111-116.
The study involving 84 Assistant Agricultural Officers working in Mysore and Bangalore
districts under the T&V system of extension reveals that 51 per cent of the
respondents are mediocre in their level of n-ach. The level of n-ach of AAOS was
positively and significantly related with their job-performance. It means that higher
levels of n-ach lead to better job-performance. In other words, poor the n-ach poor is the
job performance. Although it reflects that motives and overt behaviour are the prime
movers of agricultural production, yet the opportunities for need-achievement training is
the need of the hour especially to those who desire to attain something excellence in
their work situations. It will, by and large, enrich the cadre structures in the
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