Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1990, Volume 6(1), June
- Roling, N. Extension Science: Haven't We Come of Age.
- Antholt, C. H. Agricultural Extension: Some Concepts to be
Used and Some to be Set-aside: Issues to be Discussed and Ideas to be pursued.
- Westermarck, H. Professional Development: Through
Synergistic Extension Training Programs.
- Verma, O. S. & N. Mehrotra. Indian Rural Women: Attitude
Orientation Towards Dowry System.
- Blum, A. & M. Isaak. Adaptation of the Training and Visit
Extension System to Changing Socio-Cultural and Agro-Ecological Conditions.
- Mpachika, E. D., L. D. Lawrence, K. S. Odell & S. A. Gartin.
Contact Farmers Voice Opinions: T & V System of Extension in Malavi.
- Hassanullah, M. Selective Client Approach in Extension
Work: A Study of Contact Farmers in Bangladesh.
- Gustafson, D. J. Developing Extension within a Complex
Institutional Arena: Perspectives from Public Administration and Public Choice Theory.
- Igodan, C. O., M. M. Gwary & J. A. Ekpere. Critical Skills
and Competency Needs of Extension Agents: Evidence from Nigeria.
For quite some time, the pressure was mounting on the Editor to release the reactions
of extension professionals towards JES performance. The excerpts drawn from the letters of
those who matter in extension fraternity are presented in this editorial. The policy of
JES Management is to print realities without fear, favour, or fervour: The 3 Fs.
Prof. Layle D. Lawrence, Professor and Chair, Department of Agricultural Education,
West Virginia University, Morgantown, USA:
This journal is filling a definite void that has existed in Extension reporting. Our
Faculty at West Virginia University has found the journal to be of great interest and
value in dealing with the various aspects of Extension, and particularly in the
International characteristics of Extension systems. We have certainly made a good use of
JES in our extension classes and you have certainly undertaken a tremendous job in the
journal. I know that serving as editor of such a publication is a gigantic task, and we
commend you for your efforts. I do want to tell you how much I have enjoyed your series of
articles regarding faculty (Scientist) productivity. This is certainly a problem all
faculties must grapple with, and I believe you have made some inroads into creating
objective evaluations. I want to commend you once again on your efforts to make the
journal a success. I look forward to receiving each issue, and find articles to be of
great value in course I teach and as reference material for graduate students. You are
really making a great contribution to the profession. We certainly enjoy every issue of
the journal. Keep up the good work. We will continue to support to your efforts to the
best of our ability.
Prof. Herbert F. Lionberger: Emeritus Professor, Department of Rural Sociology,
University of Missouri, USA:
If the editor can develop the journal along systems issue lines, it can become a very
useful instrument for information and exchange where as far as I know none exists. I had
an opportunity to read articles in the June 1986 issue of JES. I liked what I saw.
Selections are of good quality and mix with a good international flavour. An editorial job
well-done on both the journal and my paper. Editorial treatment given to my paper reminded
me of imperfections that I should have detected. Thanks for the very thoughtful editorial
revision of my paper. I have now read enough to be convinced that JES is indeed a very
valuable (utilitarian) publication that lends itself very well to an extension-research
system treatment. In today's context, the JES is best alternative. The contributions are
confined quite exclusively to the "Systems" objective. I am exposed to the good
ideas of some of the authors whose papers appeared in JES. I am writing this letter (30th
September, 1987) simply to congratulate you on your selection of articles in June-1987
issue of the journal. The article titles truly reflect the very much needed systems
orientation. We are fortunate to see Prof. Niels Roling on the Editorial Board as its
Chairman. As a sound academician with a wealth of extension-type experience, he will be a
great force in keeping quality articles on course. I can, however, understand that there
may be some flak from some of the Extension colleagues if they perceive of this journal as
just another one dealing with extension methods. If it can contribute to a special niche,
fears and criticisms should be allayed somewhat.
Dr. Ir. A.W. Van den Ben: Gen. Foulkesweg 82A, 6703 Bx Wageningen, The Netherlands:
In general, I like JES. It has a somewhat more journalistic approach than most
scientific journals, which certainly for this title is good in my opinion. I would like to
see some book-reviews in JES. It is often difficult to keep informed about new
publications, certainly for readers in developing countries. A difficulty might be that
critical reviews are more useful to the readers than praising reviews, what is not the
tradition in India. The quality of articles which are submitted must create some problems
to you. I have mailed some reprints of my article published in JES and I got a number of
favourable reactions as also some requests for more information about the journal. I was
sorry to hear that Agricultural Administration and Extension will stop publishing by the
end of 1988. I wish you all the best, both personally and with your journal.
Dr. Edgar J. Boone: Head of Adult and Community College Education, North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, USA:
I want you to know that I support very much your excellent Journal of Extension
Systems. I have read with much interest the splendid articles that you have published in
your journal. I plan to use some of the articles as references in my famous graduate level
course " The Programming Process in Adult and Community College Education". You
and your colleagues are really producing an outstanding publication. You are especially
doing a great job with the journal. I wish for you much success in both your personal and
professional activities. I deem it a privilege and honour to be your colleague. It would
be great if you could visit us sometime in North Carolina. Dr. Paul Leagans speaks very
highly of you and your outstanding work.
Prof. Maurice Rolls, Director, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural
Development, The University of Reading, U.K.:
I am impressed by the standard of JES, I have always been depressed by the lack of
other journals of quality in the field of Extension. I am flattered to be asked to join
Editorial Board of the Journal and I am pleased to be associated with it and Niels Roling.
The Journal would be of great interest to students from all over the world attending
taught classes here at Reading University. I should be grateful for any assistance you may
be able to offer us in any way.
Dr. Michael M. Cernea: Sociology Advisor, World Bank, Washington D.C., USA:
My colleague Dr. Max K. Lowdermilk sent me information about JES. Let me first commend
you for the initiative in starting this publication and express my hope that it will be
successful for both research and practical purposes. You have put together a fine group of
specialists in the Editorial Board and I am also pleased and honoured to join it. I am
also pleased with the substantial progress the journal is making under your direction:
contents are really rich containing an" extension menu" appealing to all
intellectual tastes, needs, and interests. I was also gratified to find the book-review
which you wrote on my book "Putting People First". Particularly interesting to
me are the comments which relate the book to the Indian context. These are the types of
comments an author is most interested in. Your points are very well taken and I am
thankful for the time you took to write this book-review. The June, 1989 issue is rich and
very substantive, congratulations. Wish you, once again, further success with JES which I
helped so far and will continue to help in, the future.
Prof. Burton E. Swanson: Professor-INTERPACKS, University of Illinois,
I am pleased to be considered as a Member of the JES Editorial Board. Please let me
know if I can be of any help to you. It pleases met o, see increased attention being given
to scholarly journals devoted to the area of Extension education. I think this need is
long overdue in being served and I look forward to cooperating with you and other members
of the JES editorial board as we work to improve the theory and practice of Extension
Dr. H. Stuart Hawkins: Senior Lecturer in Agricultural Extension, The University of
Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia:
Please accept my best wishes for the continued production of a most useful contribution
to international extension literature. My congratulations on another excellent collection
of articles in June-1988 issue this time in higher quality binding. The paper by Sharma
and Sharma on Crossbred cattle was particularly interesting as I am giving a paper on this
very topic at a Meeting sponsored by the Australian Meat & Livestock Research and
Development Council. The Council is concerned that the practice of cross-breeding has not
been adopted extensively by Australian farmers. I am also investigating the effects of
charging farmers fees for extension/ advisory services. I would be grateful for your
advice if there are instances of this practice known to you in Asian region.
Dr. Max K. Lowdermilk: Coordinator, Colorado Institute for Irrigation Management,
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA:
You are to be congratulated for the high quality you have achieved in your journal. I
would like to have a long discussion with you about the status of Extension in India. I am
now sending you a list of potential contributors, several from this list should be able to
make some significant contributions especially Dr. Santopolo, Professor of Sociology,
Colorado State University and Dr. Robert Bruce, Professor of Extension Education, Cornell
University. In March, 1989, I am going to Egypt to work on a project of System
Rehabilitation. As a Senior Social Scientist- Advisor, I will be involved in assisting
Egyptian colleagues to help organise farmers and assisting in the establishment of an
irrigation advisory service and water user organisations. Hope to have some time to write
more about this project. We wish you and yours a very good year. Let's keep in touch.
Dr. William M. Rivera: Director, Centre for International Extension Development, The
University of Maryland, USA:
It is gratifying to know that you and your committee found my article of value, and I
look forward to receiving copies of the journal for my own reference and for that of my
students. I am informing my students, of your interest in receiving their thesis and
research papers which suit the nature of your journal. I am hoping that within the next
several years, we will have a number of submissions for your excellent journal. The
December-1988 issue arrived and I was pleased with the presentation of my paper. My
regards to Dr. Niels Roling when you write to him. Thanks for your interest and continued
Dr. Richard M. Mkandawire: University of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi:
The journal is definitely very relevant to most of us in the field of Rural Development
and my students and other colleagues will benefit from the wide range of articles
published. I would be most obliged to get a copy of the journal. Prof. T.J. Bembridge,
Dean, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, South Africa: I will be pleased to
submit an article for the JES, congratulations on your excellent journal.
Dr. K.E. Wellington: Agricultural Director, Alcan Jamaica Company, West Indies. I have
introduced the journal to our Ministry of Agriculture and the University of West Indies as
also those persons who I think should be interested. On a personal note, I do find the
articles published so far to be of intellectually stimulating, and hope that the
contributions from the West Indies will add to coverage.
Dr. P.M. Shingi: Professor, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad: My congratulations
for initiating an excellent Journal of Extension Systems. I was extremely happy to go
through the 5th Volume-1989.
Dr. Robert L. Bruce: Professor of Extension Education, Cornell University, Ithaca USA: I
have recommended the journal for adoption at the University of South Specific as well as
here at Cornell University. Every one to whom I have shown it, has been impressed. I am
looking forward to receiving JES issues.
Dr. Niels Roling, Professor and Chairman, Department of Extension Science, Agricultural
University, Wageningen, The Netherlands:
The experience with Indian Journal of Extension Education is that it is difficult for
foreign subscribers to obtain it. Sometimes, the only way to obtain it is to go to Delhi
and collect it yourself. I am sure this will not happen with Journal of Extension Systems.
I want to congratulate you with your initiative. I am very proud and indeed honoured to be
on the Editorial Board as its Chairman. I will do my utmost best to serve the JES and make
it become useful for our professional colleagues and ourselves. As we are aware, Journal
of Extension systems, is now virtually the only serious journal left in the international
market. With the folding of Agricultural Administration and Extension in January, 1989,
we, as professionals, do not any longer have a form for our publications. I think we must
pick up this challenge and step into the greater market now available. If there is
anything that I can do to remove some of the bottlenecks, I would like you to inform me. I
think there is a real serious need for a refereed journal in Extension Science. I believe
that a number of important developments are taking place around the world. The World Bank
is beginning seriously question its approach to Extension so far and in various other
places the traditional extension service in between research and farmers is becoming under
question. We seem to have gotten into a habit of not responding very promptly to each
others' correspondence. This time, I feel particularly ashamed because of the efforts you
have made, on my behalf to get my article in publishable form and to write an abstract and
editorial. The thing with letters which require special attention is that one puts them
aside for when one has the time for the attention required, and then, all kind of things
start happening which are more urgent than that they are priorities and so one thing leads
to another. I am very sorry and please accept my apologies. Thank you very much again for
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Roling, N. Extension Science: Haven't We Come of Age,
Extension Science is a body of knowledge on which extension practitioner draws to make
effective interventions. Extension is thus 'Interventology': the science of intervening
into the social processes to achieve outcomes deemed desirable by the change agent. In
addition, expansion of sectors has posed even greater problems for which extension
requires a well-developed Extension Science. Extension is not a special pedagogy of
agriculture. It also deals with sectors like health, energy conservation, pollution
control, nutrition, consumer education, rural development, and so on. To handle a variety
of interventions in these many different sectors, it requires much more of extension
science: The Intensive Practice.
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Antholt, C. H. Agricultural Extension: Some Concepts to
be Used and Some to be Set-aside: Issues to be Discussed and Ideas to be pursued,
This article is a "Think-Piece" which can probably provide the clue as to
where Extension now needs to go. Whereas several out-dated concepts need to be thrown
away, several others of recent origin need to be used with great care. The emergence of
this duality has raised many issues which will perhaps occupy much of our attention in
nineties. A set of thought-provoking ideas of general concern are discussed here in this
direction that must be addressed and reinforced.
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Westermarck, H. Professional Development: Through
Synergistic Extension Training Programs, 22-32.
Resistance to change is a phenomenon which should be welcomed with gesture. Information
technology might probably help in mitigating all sorts of resistances. Extensionists,
therefore, need to be efficient in using and adapting the new technology. Extension
Directors can play both as Manager and the Leader in this environment. They need to
promote international cooperation for professional development through synergistic
training programs such as International Summer Schools, Video Conferences, and Study
Groups. Similarly, there is a strong need of some International Organization for Extension
Scientists. The initiative taken to establish IRGI (International Research Group in
Extension) at the time of 1988 World Rural Sociology Conference at Bologna, Italy, is a
right step in this direction. In addition, professional extension journals too need to be
strengthened as they are important avenues for professional development.
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Verma, O. S. & N. Mehrotra. Indian Rural Women:
Attitude Orientation Towards Dowry System, 33-44.
Of the several violences against women, dowry deaths has become a most heinous crime
these days especially in India. In 1987 alone, there were 1639 dowry victims, The, figure
has increased by 65 per cent since then. Stringent laws are not enough to check this
menace. The change in attitude orientation has to be driven home. This requires a
systematic attempt to induce, introduce, instigate, and plan through various means,
methods, and media. Before initiation of such a programme, however, it would be worthwhile
if attitude orientation of the people towards dowry systems is known beforehand. The
present study is drawn out of this stigma. For studying attitude orientation, a scale
termed as "Dowry Systems Orientation Scale (DSO-Scate)" was devised with the
help of Thurstone's Paired Comparison Technique. This scale was applied to 100 women
respondents who were drawn from three villages of Bhojipura Block of Bareilly district in
Uttar Pradesh. The attitude score for all the 100 respondents were computed arid attitude
location on dowry systems orientation scale continuum was fixed either Favourable,
Neutral, Unfavourable. Then, percentage analysis was carried out through six independent
personal factors. On the whole, 55 per cent women are found to have favourable attitude
towards dowry system. Younger generation is found to have opposed the dowry. It is the
middle age group where 63.20 per cent women are prone to dowry who mainly belong to upper
caste communities. Nuclear families exercised dowry more than joint families.
Surprisingly, it is not the "Dadima" who voiced mote for dowry but the
daughters-in-law. Similarly, it is not the illiterates who favoured dowry the most but
literates and neoliterates. So is the case with big land owners where 70 per cent of women
supported the institution of dowry system. All these accounts apparently reveal that the
privilege groups are more sensitive to give and take of dowry. This is where the change in
attitude is most warranted.
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Blum, A. & M. Isaak. Adaptation of the Training and
Visit Extension System to Changing Socio-Cultural and Agro-Ecological Conditions,
The Training and Visit (T&V) extension system was developed in Turkey, based on the
Israeli experience of the developer, and was further refined in India. It was later
adopted by many countries in South East Asia, Africa and other parts of the world.
Experience showed the necessity to adapt the system to the very different socio-cultural
and agro-economical conditions of the adopting countries. A number of these adaptations
from a wide array of countries are discussed. In many cases useful, adaptive solutions
were found, but in others the T&V system was adopted without the necessary
adaptations. It is suggested to develop an adaptation checklist which will help especially
less experienced, potential T&V adaptors to make the needed alterations.
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Mpachika, E. D., L. D. Lawrence, K. S. Odell & S. A.
Gartin. Contact Farmers Voice Opinions: T & V System of Extension in Malavi,
Studies of Training and Visit system effectiveness have been largely based upon
perceptions of extension workers. Because of a neglect of the perceptions, experiences,
and reactions of the people who themselves are supposedly the recipients of extension
efforts, this study was designed to investigate perceptions of those being served, the
contact farmers in Malawi. Data collected from 120 contact farmers show general
satisfaction with the system as a means of technology transfer. Perceptions of successes
and problems are presented. Suggestions to strengthen effectiveness of the system are
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Hassanullah, M. Selective Client Approach in
Extension Work: A Study of Contact Farmers in Bangladesh, 74-86.
Model farmers, supervised farmers, group leaders, or lay leaders are all other names of
"Contact Farmers". Extension Systems work through these selected farmers with an
assumption that others will learn from them. The findings of this study, however, show
that contact farmers have neither any scope nor competence to act as informal educators,
They leave no multiplier effect on the participation and performance of other ordinary
farmers. They rather tend to form a "Social-hard-pan" which blocks the free flow
of knowledge and resource-laiden services of extension agent to other farmers. The idea of
contact farmers to be the substitute for extension agents, is, therefore, not tenable.
Institutionalization of their services in the form of a voluntary cadre as Informal
Educators in between extension agents and the farmers is a futile proposition, These
findings are drawn based on the data collected from 324 contact farmers and 563 ordinary
farmers of Bangladesh.
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Gustafson, D. J. Developing Extension within a Complex
Institutional Arena: Perspectives from Public Administration and Public Choice Theory,
Many important issues of extension system development parallel wider concerns of public
policy and institutional development. This article examines key elements of the literature
on dispersed responsibility and public sector management as they relate to the development
of agricultural extension systems within a complex institutional arena of multiple
providers-both public and private. Convergent themes of extension development and public
administration and public choice theory are identified, with specific attention given to
the privatization or commercialization of extension, and the role of the public sector in
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Igodan, C. O., M. M. Gwary & J. A. Ekpere. Critical
Skills and Competency Needs of Extension Agents: Evidence from Nigeria, 100-107.
The critical skills and competencies of extension agents needed in promoting
innovations among farmers make the difference between success and failure in Nigeria's
attempt to modernize the agricultural sector. Using essentially the method of
self-appraisal (through questionnaire), the study identified a skill-competency package
categorized into nine extension tasks areas in which extension agents were deficient and
required further training. The findings showed that extension agents were more competent
in the skill area of Extension Organization and Administration (x= 3.34; ranked 1 and
least competent in Understanding Forestry, (x = 2.77; ranked 9). Skill areas agents
indicated most competency was not necessarily the most important to them. In order words,
there was no perfect match or convergence between skills and competencies presented and
the importance of such skill areas for extension work.
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