Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1990, Volume 6(2), December
O. S. Verma, Editorial
- Blum, A. & M. Issak An Instrument for the
Adaptation of the Training and Visit Extension System to Changing Agro-Ecological and
- Duvel, G. H. Needs and Their Role in Conservative
- Annor-Frempong, C. The Linkage Problem: A
Comparative Analysis of Cocoa and Maize Technology Systems in Ghana.
- Lin, Shih-tung & H. F. Lionberger Institutionalizing
Social Change Extension: The Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction in Taiwan as a Case
- Antholt, C. H. Strategic Issues for
Agricultural Extension in Pakistan: Looking Back to Look Ahead.
- Rivera, W. M. Trends and Issues in International
Agricultural Extension: The End of the Beginning.
Recently, there was a perfumed Conference in New Delhi so-called International
conference on extension strategy for minimizing risk in rainfed agriculture" from 6th
April to 10th April, 1991. I also came to attend it with a great hope that some wonderful
extension strategy is likely to come out after the deliberations which will be something
special for rainfed agriculture. My enthusiasm, however, bogged-down the very first day
when I witnessed "the scheme of things" which have nothing to do with rainfed
agriculture. To me, it appeared to be a "Well-fed-strategy" of Indian Extension
coterie masterminded by the Extension-Emperor for the Extension celebrities. In all
certainties, the show on inaugural day made me to believe that it is going to be an
Internal conference instead of International.
After inaugurating the conference and delivering his speech in Urdu, Chaudhary Devi
Lal, Deputy Prime Minister, left the podium. Half-an-hour later came Mr. Chandra Shekhar,
Prime Minister of India, and " the scheme of things" began to happen. In the
welcome address, the Convener of the conference opened his mouth with these words
"Chaudhary Devi Lal is no more with us". Shabbas, three cheers Mr. convener. He
perhaps wanted to apprise the PM that Chaudhary Devi Lal could not stay because of his
some other engagements. The Convener appears to be an apprentice in the art of public
speaking. If it was so, then how the organizers chose such untrained hand for such a
sensitive job. His subsequent performances further aggravated the international standards.
In the opening remarks, the chief of the organizers claimed that the strength and
jampacked 600-seating capacity FICCI auditorium by itself is an indication that the
Conference is a great success. True, but he has forgotten to foresee what is going to
happen the next moment. Many of our learned delegates so-called "foreign
delegates" could not even get salad' what to speak of lunch delicacies. I myself
survived on 'dal' alone that too was procured with a great difficulty by one of my
well-wishers. Almost one-fourth strength of the delegates remained without lunch. This
hotch-potch catering system continued throughout the five days of the conference. As a
result of this uncertainty, most of the delegates especially the Indians became more
interested in capturing the first best stock of the food rather than participating in
extension strategy which was being discussed in four different sessions.
There was a mad rush for obtaining the Pack of conference literature which contained 15
items. The organizers were rubbing shoulders of each other when they found that their
printers have not supplied the material. The net result has been that no delegate could
get full pack. Similar has been the case of " bag-pen-pad" legacy to the
registered delegates. Even though the name-cards were prepared in advance but a very few
delegates could trace their name-card from the bundle which was scattered on the counter
outside the auditorium.
There was surprise when a sudden announcement was made that some distinguished
personalities will now be decorated with some prestigious awards under the auspices of
Indian Society of Extension Education. The first such award was named as "Excellence
in Extension" and was confer, red on five vice-chancellors having extension
background. Perhaps, vice-chancellorship has been the only criterion for this award and
certainly not excellence in extension. One relatively younger vice-chancellor who was also
having Ph.D. in extension and deserved much more than others, however, was deliberately or
otherwise left out. This made many self-claimed heavyweights annoyed who virtually
revolted against hegemony of the Supremo. In order to silence them, they were accommodated
overnight in an another kind of award fabricated as "National Extension Fellow".
The biggest mockery was seen in valedictory function when this award was given in
"Wholesale" to about two-dozen scientists of India. By all accounts, baring a
few ones, most of the recipients are very mediocre and some of them have not even acquired
any formal training or degree in extension science. It seems that these awards are the
rewards offered in bargain of ISEE election that preceded the conference. In this herd, I
was shocked to see that the young vice-chancellor has also fallen prey to the appeasement
policy notwithstanding the damage that it will cause to his image for accepting this sort
of meaningless award. I was thinking to propose his name to the international Family of
Extension Stalwarts but I am now constrained to give a second thought. No Indian has yet
got the place in the fraternity of extension stalwarts whose biography is to be published
in this journal.
I have heard of some prestigious awards like Nobel Peace Prize, Magssassey Hward, and
Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar Award etc. which are really bestowed on meritorious and deserved
scientists after judicious screening for their scientific discoveries. The recipients of
these awards are also proud of being a precious distinguished personality worldover. In
comparison, look at the awards granted by ISEE. It made many of us difficult to control
our 'laughs' when these awards were being distributed like sweets. If at all award or
awards were inevitable under the garb of ISEE, it would have been a befitting tribute to
the great extensionist of India Late Dr. K.N. Singh if one award and only one recipient
would have been announced in the name of "K.N. Singh Memorial Award". It could
have then made a sense.
One phenomenon, which appeared to be a calculated move of some disgruntled people to
side-track one of the pioneers and founding fathers of ISEE. There has been no mention at
all of Dr. Shyam N. Singh throughout the five-day drama of the conference. The fact of the
facts is that it is Dr. Shyam N. Singh who nurtured ISEE right from its inception for
about two decades while functioning Secretary & Treasurer. His contributions to the
cause of ISEE and to the field of Extension science, therefore,. can not be overlooked or
forgotten. He has now retired as Joint-Director (Extension) IARI, New Delhi. If there is
any justice on this earth, it is only Dr. Shyam N. Singh who deserved first for any award
promulgated by ISEE. Through this editorial, I suggest that ISEE should abolish both the
aforesaid awards, Institute "K.N. Singh Memorial Award", and honour Dr. Shyam N.
Singh with this citation and a tax-free cash prize of one lac Rupees for his meritorious
On the last day of the conference, one gentleman from Akola was distributing a bulletin
superscribed as "International Society of Extension Education". It contained
eight printed pages of constitutional details. I also procured one and started inquiring
from as many delegates as I knew out of 500 odd participants. It was to my utter
disappointment that none knew about it; though they were hearing of this sort of
International Association likely to come for the last many years. Next day on 10th April
during General Body Meeting of ISEE, the same gentleman was seen practically bent upon to
obtain at least the notional approval in principle. God knows what does he mean by
notional approval in principle. Most probably, he wanted to possess the copy-right or
patent-right of International Society of Extension Education. Serious doubts were raised
on this move mainly as to who floated this nomenclature without having any cognizance of
what developments are already afoot in some other parts of the world and without having
consultations with any international figure. At least one of the promoters of
International Association of Extension Professionals Ms. Janice Jiggins of the Netherlands
who was very much here in the conference should have been consulted.
Finding strict opposition, a task-force was formed and I was named as one of the
five-member "Task-Group". I made my points known and apprised the house of the
latest position in the name of International Association. I also endorsed the view of some
learned-members that International Society or Association should not be located in India
as our logistics are still not matured, not conducive, and not patented. We should rather
concentrate more on improving the quality of ISEE services instead of jumping in
international ring merely because of some body's sheer excitement and fascination.
International Association should be based somewhere in developed country either in USA or
the Netherlands. The idea was hushed up and in hustings nothing concrete came out.
Abruptly, the General Body Meeting was closed on the pretext that lunch is ready for which
we-Indians are very sincere.
Before I end up this editorial, some very basic questions remain to be answered. Those
who are on the Executive Committee of ISEE should not be cowardice but should have guts to
raise them at appropriate time: Who constituted these awards, were they discussed in GB/EC
and got approval, was there any constitutional system for these awards, were the
nomination /applications invited, who selected the recipients, who fabricated the
nomenclature of these awards, what has been the yardstick in selection, wherefrom the word
came that these awards will be given after every three years, and what is the recognition
and value of these awards. The ISEE is a common property right of 730 members and not a
family fiefdom with somebody as the heir. Therefore, the democratic ethos have to be
protected at all costs. It is unfortunate to report that the implicit sense of the words
like the Supremo, the veto, the hegemony, legacy of the past, and feudal lord are freely
exercised in this conference which need to be questioned.
And, lastly, instead of extension strategy what came out was a set of the
recommendations at the cost of 50 million rupees and is reported to make 70 per cent
India's rainfed land most productive parallel to wet-land agriculture. These
recommendations, however, were" deficient" as taunted by Mr. Mohan Dharia,
Deputy-Chairman of India's Planning Commission while delivering his valedictory address.
On the whole, therefore, the investment made in this conference is not a worthwhile
proposition. The conference, however, has immensely helped the key-organizers to acquire
the image of a Prince-Crusader. And, this is what has been the main purpose of these
conferences. In that sense, the conference has been a grand success.
Back to Top
Blum, A. & M. Issak An Instrument for
the Adaptation of the Training and Visit Extension System to Changing Agro-Ecological and
Socio-Cultural Conditions, 12-20.
The need for an instrument which facilitates the adaptation of
the Training and Visit (T&V) extension system to changing agro-ecological and
socio-cultural conditions was established. The instrument is in the form of a definer-type
checklist of questions, which were derived from empirical case studies of T&V
adaptations. The questions are grouped according to the most typical T&V principles
which needed local adaptation: extension exclusively links with research, systematic
training, time-bound work, and imitable contact farmers. Experienced T&V
administrators found the instrument to be useful.
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Duvel, G. H. Needs and Their Role in
Conservative Farming, 21-41.
The concept and role of needs are explored and a modus
procedurus, based on the field theory, suggested for identifying the critical factors
causing behavioural change or explaining adoption behaviour. These factors or forces are
need related and can apparently be identified as needs and as need related perceptions of
innovation attributes. The problem of veld deterioration, and more specifically the
non-adoption of veld management systems, is investigated against this background.
Invariably, the causes of behaviour can be directly traced back to needs and perception.
The findings give a new perspective of the practical problems involved and especially the
prerequisites for the adoption of effective veld management systems as a means towards
veld and environment conservation.
Back to Top
Annor-Frempong, C. The Linkage Problem: A
Comparative Analysis of Cocoa and Maize Technology Systems in Ghana, 42-52.
This paper focuses on the linkage between research and extension
It is based on a research carried out between August and October 1987 on the intersection
between research and extension in the domains of cocoa and maize technology systems in
Ghana. The paper examines the working relationship between research and extension in four
main areas, namely; research programming, research activities, communication, and
monitoring and evaluation. While the cocoa technology system utilises a committee to
foster a link among researchers and extensionists, the maize system tends to adopt a
management approach with semblances of the farming system research and extension strategy.
The weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed.
Back to Top
Lin, Shih-tung & H. F. Lionberger Institutionalizing
Social Change Extension: The Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction in Taiwan as a Case
in Point, 53-66.
In view of the magnitude and importance of what countries borrow
in comparison to what they invent and how delivery systems have operated to divert
resources from intended developmental purposes to the pockets of grant receivers adept at
operating in two social systems, one to get the assistance and the other to use its more
attention must be given to building working relationship that will deliver benefits to
those for whom they are intended (Barnett, 1990). These are often the underprivileged and
economically by-passed elements in societies.
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Antholt, C. H. Strategic Issues for
Agricultural Extension in Pakistan: Looking Back to Look Ahead, 67-86.
At the start of the Twentieth Century's last decade, with a large
and rapidly growing population, and the continued importance of agriculture to Pakistan,
it is appropriate to consider how to enhance Pakistan's agricultural growth. Without a
question the overall economic and agricultural gains realized by Pakistan over the last
forty three years have been no less than impressive. Nevertheless, with nearly 55 percent
of the labour force still dependent on agriculture, an average per capita income around
U.S.$ 350, there is a continued need to be concerned with the rate and nature of
agricultural development. With the understanding we now have of the sophisticated
complexities of the development process in general, and the central importance of
agricultural development to that process, we can say with some certainty that broad based
agricultural development, driven by cost reducing technological change is an imperative
for Pakistan. In that context agricultural development, as is general economic
development, is closely related to the development of human capital, as Schultz noted more
than twenty years ago2. It is within that framework the importance of agricultural
extension rests-as a service that enhances the ability of farm families to respond to old
problems and meet new opportunities.
Back to Top
Rivera, W. M. Trends and Issues in
International Agricultural Extension: The End of the Beginning, 87-102.
The study and practice of agricultural extension worldwide arrived at a turning point
in the 1980s, one which represented the end of a major phase in the history of extension's
relatively recent beginning. It was, so to speak, the end of the beginning.
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