Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1989, Volume 5(2), December
- Verma, O. S. Extension Functionaries: Competence Most Warranted
- Boone, E. J. Working With Our Publics: In-service Education for
- Rajab, K. M., L. D. Lawrence, S. A. Gartin, T. J. Gaylvin & K.
S. Odell. Agricultural Problem-Solving Systems Research in Zanzibar: Determining Needs
- Leagans, J. P. Toward a Macro-Model: For Programming
- Drysdale, A. M. & J. C. Shute. Efficiency and
Effectiveness of Agricultural Extension Service in Indonesia: A Case Study.
- Mkandawire, R. M. Smallholder Survival Strategies in Malawi: A Case Study of the
Salima Agricultural Development Division (SLADD).
- Rivera, W. M. & Robert J. Wheeler. Agricultural Extension
Systems Characteristics: A Matrix for Examining Extension Models.
- Kaul, P. N. & A. K. Kesavan Nair. Training Effort as a
Function of Change in Skills and Attitudes.
Verma, O. S. Extension Functionaries: Competence Most
Warranted in Nineties, 5-19.
A model system of extension functionaries drawn in this article warrants Extension
competence at three levels: (1) TLEF-System (2) MLEF-System (3) FLEF-System. At each
level, certain amount of a particular skill is essential. These skill are of tree types.
(1) Extension skill (2) Behavioural skill (3) Technical skill. Each level extension
functionary has to maintain his link with the Hard-core Specialty groups. With Subject
Matter Specialty, it is Consultative type and with Extension Specialty group it is
Participative in resident teaching, training & research. There is yet another category
termed here as "Super Administrator-the Head of Organization-who has to provide
congenial administrative system to the extension functionaries for their efficient
functioning. Ten factors are important in this system: (1) Linkage Behaviour (2) Human
Relations (3) Participative Management (4) Democratic Leadership (5) Organizational
Climate (6) Management Values (7) Organizational Commitment (8) Professional Ethics (9)
Personal Credibility, and (10) Emphatic Ability. Similarly, 'Communication Transactions'
between Extension Manager and his Subordinates has to be receptive and congenial.
Basically, three type of communication transactions take place in the organizations: (1)
Complementary (2) Crossed (3) Ulterior. In majority of events, complementary transactions
are most warranted.
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Boone, E. J. Working With Our Publics: In-service Education
for Cooperative Extension, 20-27.
"Working With Our Publics: In-service Education For Cooperative Extension"
consists of 8 training modules: (1) Understanding Land-Grant University, (2) Understanding
Cooperative Extension, (3) Extension Education Process, (4) Developing Leadership, (5)
Situational Analysis, (6) Working with Groups and Organizations, (7) Education for Public
Decisions, and (8) Analytical Techniques for Future Programming. The modules are intended
to increase the ability and effectiveness of all professional extension educators in
effecting planned change among Extension clientele. They are designed both to stand alone,
as individual modules, and to comprise a coordinated series. These modules were developed
through survey analysis and discussions with Extension practitioners under Kellogg
Foundation Grant 1985-1988. The eight modules are now being used throughout the United
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Rajab, K. M., L. D. Lawrence, S. A. Gartin, T. J. Gaylvin
& K. S. Odell. Agricultural Problem-Solving Systems Research in Zanzibar:
Determining Needs and Priorities, 28-34.
Sustained and improved agricultural productivity is largely dependent upon a research
system which provides a steady stream of new knowledge and technologies needed to overcome
problems and enhance efficiency. Critics charge that too few research programs are aimed
at solving immediate and pressing problems of farmers; that too much of the research is
undertaken for academic purposes; and that too much emphasis is being placed on basic
research which, though potentially useful in the long run, is presently of little benefit.
Changes in research strategies and policies have been suggested by Clausen (1984), DeVries
(1981), and the World Bank (1981), among others. This study was conducted to identify
specific agricultural problems in Zanzibar most in need of research solutions, as
perceived by extension administrators and workers. An awareness of research needs felt at
the grassroots level should enable agricultural scientists and policy makers to more
thoroughly evaluate present programs and plan appropriate future undertakings.
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Leagans, J. P. Toward a Macro-Model: For Programming
Continuing Education, 35-44.
The central purpose of continuing education is to help post-school adults achieve
greater capacity to manage the ongoing responsibilities imposed on adulthood. Collating
the manifestations of technological change and qualities of life at optimum levels is the
central means to achievement. Programme which seem to work best are characterized by
sensitive assessment of the total situation, careful identification of people's needs,
compiling an array of viable options, designing and executing a programme around the most
promising options, and testing and revising the design. The learner and what he learns
constitutes always the essential dependent variables in developmental education for
adults. One of our major problems in programming education for adults, as also for youth,
is that the educational result desired lies not in the instructor, but in the learner.
Programmers are in he business of futures building. A futures perspective places the
explication of all alternative futures front and center-stage in the programming process.
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Drysdale, A. M. & J. C. Shute. Efficiency and
Effectiveness of Agricultural Extension Service in Indonesia: A Case Study, 45-59.
The evaluation was conducted in the Sanrego Area of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and
focused on the efficiency and effectiveness of the extension service, The criteria used to
measure efficiency related to the dissemination of information about government
intensification activities whereas the criteria for effectiveness dealt with the adoption
of these activities. The major observations relating to efficiency were as follows: (1)
Extension agents feel inadequately trained to carry out their job, particularly in the
area of estate crops, fisheries and animal husbandry; (2) Contact and Advanced farmers are
better educated, travel more and are wealthier than Follower farmers; (3) Field Extension
Workers had a low knowledge about their job responsibilities, particularly in the area of
farmer group development; (4) A major barrier facing field Workers is the large area of
responsibility and the lack of transportation; (5) Field workers enjoy interacting with
rural community but feel overworked and underpaid; (6) Training is irregular; (7)
Extension workers maintain very few demonstration plats; and (8) Reporting from the field
to higher administrative levels is poor. Regarding effectiveness, location was the
dominant factor influencing adoption of production recommendations. Because production
inputs are often unavailable in the study area, location represented greater or lesser
access to suppliers. Also, it was observed that farmers have not adopted the farmers'
group concept and prefer to interact with the extension agent on an individual basis,
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Mkandawire, R. M. Smallholder Survival Strategies in
Malawi: A Case Study of the Salima Agricultural Development Division (SLADD), 60-74.
This paper argues that in spite of the impressive agricultural performance since the
Malawi attained independence in 1964, agricultural development programmes have had impact
mostly on those farmers with above average holdings who have access to farm credit,
purchased input supplies, and extension advices. Small poorer farmers with less than a
hectare of land (including women farmers) have little contact with extension staff, have
limited access to farm credit, and cannot afford input supplies. These small farmers are
working under severe food production and supply constraints. As a consequence, they have
resorted to a wide range of survival strategies to earn a livelihood. Yet the adopted
survival strategies entrench such poorer households even further in the vicious cycle of
poverty. If these households are to extricate themselves from the vicious cycle of
poverty, the Government should experiment with new intervention mechanisms that could take
into account the realities and specific circumstances of these poorer smallholder farmers.
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Rivera, W. M. & Robert J. Wheeler. Agricultural
Extension Systems Characteristics: A Matrix for Examining Extension Models, 75-97
This paper examines agricultural extension systems, classifies their main
characteristics, and then selects examples of systems (which demonstrate different system
characteristics) and describes their advantages and limitations, It is organized into
three sections: (i) overall considerations-an examination of differences among extension
systems: sector differences and their impact on extension's role, differences in
institutional and extension system approaches, and socio-economic and political
differences that influence extension, (ii) system characteristics-an examination of how
systems are controlled, their purposes, and the relationship of different systems to their
clientele; and (iii) system models-a description of five major agricultural extension
models, along with one research system having an extension component and their advantages
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Kaul, P. N. & A. K. Kesavan Nair. Training Effort as a
Function of Change in Skills and Attitudes, 98-100.
Training may be defined as the acquisition of new skills and attitudes so that the task
at hand can be performed more efficiently. It involves a face-to-face contact of the
trainer and the trainee in which both the skills and attitude undergo a change. Studies
made earlier have shown that social contacts modify attitudes (Newcomb, 1943; Guttman and
Foa, 1951; Carlson, 1956; Krech et al., 1962). In the acquisition of skills, academic
intelligence and motor skills have been found to be related by Skinner (1977) who states;
"The greater the variety of specific movements and skill patterns the child goes
through in his early maturing and developing period, the more likely he is to possess the
motor-movement equipment to meet the numerous demands of adult life."
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