Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1988, Volume 4(1), June
O. S. Verma, Editorial
- McDermott, J. K. The Technology of Technological Innovation:
A Model of Technology Development, Testing, Adaptation, and Integration Functions.
- Verma, O. S. & V. V. Bhaskar. Scientists' Productivity:
Miscellaneous Activities are Integral Part of Assessment Systems.
- Tylor-Powell, E. & H. Ladewig. Integrated Systems
Programming in Cooperative Extension; People's Goals not Subject-Matter or Extension Roles
are at the Center.
- Sinha, H. S., J. P. Khanan & N. Prasad. Opinion Leadership
System: Polymorphic and Homophily Structure in Nepal Villages.
- Blum, A. & M. Azencot. Agricultural and Extension Courses for
Trainees in Israel: A longitudinal and Action Research Evaluation System.
- Sardana, P. K, S. Gandhi, R. C. Nasija & S. D. Chamola. Role
of Women in Agriculture: Farm Women and Dairy Cattle Supplement One Another.
- Sharma, K. D. & S. K. Sharma. Cross-Bred Cattle Farming
System: Constraints Analysis.
- Gamini Samarsinghe, S. H. M., L. D. Lawrence, S. A. Gartin, K. S.
Odell. T & V System in Sri Lanka: Whether it has Delivered the Goods.
- Agnihotri, N. K. Agricultural Extension Service: An Impact
- Dixit, V. B., K. D. Kokate & K. N. K. Chauhan. Rural Youth
Training in Arid Farming systems: A Gainful Experience.
- Lakoh, A. K. Extension Agents' Job-design, Satisfaction, and
Performance Model: Determining Interfaces.
What is the place of Extension in Transfer of Technology System? This question has been
raised time and again and several eminent Extension Scholars have presented their TOT
Models in a number of ways. Without prejudice to any one and without disputing or
conforming to any other model, I record my own conceptual views on TOT System in this
editorial. Comments are most welcome.
Extension is no more a drum beating propaganda for disseminating agricultural
information or propagating all round development of village communities. It is a well
defined science, a science of systems approach for transferring the technology to the
user-client. The technology may be any not necessarily agriculture or animal husbandry but
any thing which involves something technical of public concern. It may be agriculture,
animal husbandry, home science, fisheries, industries, adult education and even human
health care management. The subject-master technology under TOT system, therefore, is not
confined to a specific field of activities. What is more specific in this connection is
the continuous generation of new technology and revalidation of old ones. The Technology
Generation and Revalidation, therefore, is a first component. of TOT system. This requires
a well equipped and well established research organization.
Once the Technology is generated, it is of no value unless there are buyers of this
technology. The User-client is, therefore, another component of TOT system. These
User-clients are human beings of different socioeconomic domains.
The technology generated at research organizations is generally of complex nature. The
common man can not understand the practical utility of such a technology. It requires
appropriate treatment to the best requirement of User-client. Similarly, every technology
is not relevant to all the human being in the population. It is User-specific. However, it
does not mean that some technology have no user. Paradoxically, every technology has its
'User-client'. Only thing which remains to be answered is to identify these 'User-clients'
In the population. But who will do this job and who will do the job of technology
treatment? The science, the science of Extension systems. The third and powerful component
of TOT system, therefore, is Extension system which stays in between TGR-System and
UC-System. In the light of this discussion, the TOT is a general system which includes the
following three systems.
1. Technology Generation and Revalidation (TGR-System)
2. Extension System (E-System)
3. User-client (UC-System)
There are two components of TGR-System: (1) Hard-core group and (2) Soft-core group.
The 'hard-core' constitutes laboratory bound scientists and technocrats of all sciences.
Their main job is to generate and revalidate the technology, as per the requirements of
'User-client' system. The 'soft-core group is constituted of the scientists and
technocrats of their respective 'hardcore' group but 'field bound'. This group is trained
in the Basics of Extension Science. We need to locate this 'soft-core, group in all
sciences for TOT purposes. The following sciences sound well for TOT system.
2. Animal Husbandry
3. Home Science
6. Legal Literacy
7. Public Health
8. Family Welfare
9. Adult Education
2. Extension System (E-System)
There are also two groups: (1) Hard-core Extension group, and (2) Soft-core Extension
group. The job of 'hard core' group is to produce expert manpower through a well defined
process of teaching and research programming into the relevant aspects of Extension
Science. The 'hard core' group thus supplies the trained manpower to 'soft core' group to
manage the field bound development programmer. This is the Extension system where Master's
and Doctoral programmes in Extension Science are pursued. Besides "Basics of
Extension Science" as a major subject, it includes the following specialized area in
which the students are taught subject-matter knowledge.
1. Extension Sociology
2. Extension Psychology
3. Communication Arts
4. Human Resources Development
5. Extension Management
6. Adult Education and Extension
The job of 'soft core' field bound Extension group is mainly to manage different
developmental action programmer suited to various recommendation domains. This is service
oriented sub-system composed of 'soft core' scientists and technocrats of all sciences.
This group has practically no role in academic teaching and scientific research. Their
research is Feed-back problem-solving and teaching is training-specific. This subsystem of
Extension covers the following establishments.
1. Institutional Training Centre
2. Communication Media Centre
3. Extension Services Unit
4. Advisory/Consultancy services unit
5. Adult Education Unit.
3. User-client System (UC-System)
There are several misconceptions about TOT and its 'User-client.' The first and most
widely established misconception is that we think TOT is nothing other than agricultural
technology meant for farmers. No, TOT is beyond that. The TOT is not only meant for rural
people but also for urban population. In order to complete the TOT system, therefore, we
have to identify two sets of 'User-client' groups. One is "Rural-biased" and
another 'Urban biased." Yes, TOT is equally important to rural communities as also to
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McDermott, J. K. The Technology of Technological
Innovation: A Model of Technology Development, Testing, Adaptation, and Integration
This is a system of Technology Innovation Process and thesis
behind this process is that it works through several social processes like: (1) Stock of
Knowledge, (2) Research, (3) Technology Development, (4) Testing, (5) Adaptation, (6)
integration, (7) Diffusion, and (8) Common practice. This model connects human need with
human knowledge, Either the need is solved from the stock of knowledge or super knowledge
discovers a need. These are the two static states at opposite end of the technology
innovation process. In between lie rest of the functions; the functions of knowing,
thinking deciding, and taking action on technological innovations. These functions are
inter-related in shared state of the art. It literally shows that the Communication among
the components flows in both directions at every interface. The dynamics of this process,
how ever, is still not well understood and the model, therefore, raises more issues and
questions than it attempts to answer. The most that can be claimed is that the model is
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Verma, O. S. & V. V. Bhaskar. Scientists' Productivity:
Miscellaneous Activities are Integral Part of Assessment Systems, 29-36.
There are certain miscellaneous activities which make indirect
contributions to the Scientists' productivity. The six such activities are delineated in
this study: (1) Seminars, symposia, conferences, and workshops, (2) External Examinership,
(3) Selection committees & Boards, (4) Editorial Jobs, (5) Professional Societies
& Associations, and (6) Departmental duties. In Scientists' assessment systems, these
activities should account for 10 per cent weightage. There should, however, not be more
than 10 days time at the disposal of S-I Scientists and 20 days S-2 and S-3 Scientists in
a year. Scientists, therefore, should be given opportunity to undertake such honorary jobs
within these limits.
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Tylor-Powell, E. & H. Ladewig. Integrated
Systems Programming in Cooperative Extension; People's Goals not Subject-Matter or
Extension Roles are at the Center, 37-51.
Because of limited success in recent years in helping
agriculturists, the Cooperative Extension Service initiated an integrated systems approach
to educational programs in agricultural and natural resources. Integrated systems
programming is not merely a method for bringing different disciplinary specialists
together. It is rather a focus on and appreciation for complex problematic situations
where Peoples' Goals, not subject matter areas or Extension roles, are at the Center of
the programming effort. The combination of people, disciplines, administrative
hierarchies, and geographic units relate to these problematic situations. This study has
identified opportunities for Extension to move in this direction. Findings, however,
indicate that there is no simple blue-print to integrate production, management, and
marketing strategies for enhancing agricultural profitability. A variety of factors were
found affecting integrated efforts within several key component areas like: nature and
identification of problems, attitude of administrators, team structure and group
processes, and the system of organisational support.
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Sinha, H. S., J. P. Khanan & N. Prasad. Opinion
Leadership System: Polymorphic and Homophily Structure in Nepal Villages, 52-59.
Different leaders for different action programmes is a foregone
philosophy. Today, the need is to identify a leader who can feed information to all this
brethren in respect of all the relevant matters of common concern. This is so because
Polymorphism is a well established proposition in village communities. This has been
corroborated in this study where 100 per cent overlapping of opinion leadership is found
in matters like: Rice cultivation, Farm credit, marketing agricultural produce, village
disputes, and Health-care. Secondly, the polymorphic opinion leadership is not confined to
a few hands. It is wide-spread and diffused into various socio-economic domains. The
'Caste' and 'Farm-size, however, are more pronounced homophilous groups in Seeker-sought
relationship. The opinion leaders are characteristically innovative and risk-bearing
persons. Their involvement and participation in social activities is significantly more as
compared to non-leaders. These are some of the highlights of structural system of opinion
leadership in Nepal villages which are no different from other developing countries.
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Blum, A. & M. Azencot. Agricultural and Extension
Courses for Trainees in Israel: A longitudinal and Action Research Evaluation System,
Under the auspices of the Centre for International Agricultural
Development Cooperation (CINADO), several intensive dairy-cum-extension courses are
regularly held in Israel for English and Spanish speaking trainees. In order to evaluate
these training courses, a new model termed as "Longitudinal and Action Research
Evaluation System" was devised with a view to enable the application of insights
gained during implementation of planned courses. This system revolves around an
experienced, empathetic and resourceful "Participatory Evaluator" who is a part
of the team but independent and not directly involved in running of the courses.
Advantages of both internal and external evaluation are thus combined canceling out many
of the disadvantages. This evaluation model was applied in 16 courses with 304 participant
trainees. Our findings speak that this model system turned up to be excellent in
evaluating the HRD courses.
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Sardana, P. K, S. Gandhi, R. C. Nasija & S. D. Chamola. Role
of Women in Agriculture: Farm Women and Dairy Cattle Supplement One Another, 67-69.
Farm women as farmer has been a well accepted proposition these
days. They look after not only their house-hold chores but also a number of farm
activities. Their intensity of participation, however, varies according to the nature of
work. The soft, easy, and feminine-character activities like animal husbandry operations
are dominated by farm women. Almost 95 per cent of the work of dairy cattle is done by the
women alone. The arduous tasks like field preparations, manuring & fertilizer
applications, irrigating the crops, and construction & repairs of the field channels
are still the monopoly of men-folk. Besides, there are several other activities which
involve joint work such as transplantation, FYM making, weeding operations, harvesting the
crops, storage of farm produce, and marketing of livestocks. In these activities, the farm
women play supporting role with their men-counterpart. These are the findings of this
study carried out in three arid, Semi-arid, and humid zones of Haryana State in India with
300 farm women respondents drawn from 6 villages.
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Sharma, K. D. & S. K. Sharma. Cross-Bred Cattle
Farming System: Constraints Analysis, 70-74.
In order to meet the minimum requirement of 165 grams of milk per
capita per day, India today needs an additional production of milk to the tune of 37
million tons per annum. This staggering requirement was thought to be fulfilled by making
some breakthrough in animal production technology. In early seventies, therefore, a
cross-bred cattle farming system was introduced on war footings. Although there is no
denying to the fact that this system has achieved substantial progress in milk production
technology, the pace at which the targets are being met is something which is causing
concern. This is not because the wrong lies in the policy or in extension systems but
mainly because certain legitimate constraints which were not visualised initially have now
become the speed-breakers. Constraints like: no ready-made stock of cross-bred cattle,
very low heat tolerance capacity, high cost of maintenance, low percentage of fat contents
in milk, and no proper use of male-calves are the main excuses of majority of Indian
farmers for not opting cross-bred cattle farming system. Scientists, administrators, and
policy makers should jointly look at it afresh.
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Gamini Samarsinghe, S. H. M., L. D. Lawrence, S. A. Gartin,
K. S. Odell. T & V System in Sri Lanka: Whether it has Delivered the Goods,
In Sri Lanka, T&V System was introduced in 1979 with the band
of the World Bank. Whether this system has delivered the goods was the basic question in
the background of this study. The perceptions of 226 Contact Agents so-called Village
Extension Workers (VEWs) were, therefore, recorded into three-major dimensions: (1)
Farmers' group action, (2) Impact of regular visits, and (3) Message conveyance. The mean
value derived at well-over Four on a Five-point negative to positive continuum shows that
T&V system has been very effective in developing group spirit among farmers with a
very well understanding of VEWs role. Similarly, the impact of VEWs regular visits has
also been extremely well. It helped farmers identify their field problems and get
effective solutions. It has induced a change in farmers behaviour and attitude. As regards
message conveyance, the perceptions are that the latest research informations are timely
delivered to the farmers throughout the production cycle of their farming systems. It. has
thus resulted in substantial increase in farm productions. These key findings, therefore,
indicate that there has been a general satisfaction with the T&V system operation and
outcomes. However, where there are successes the difficulties are bound to encounter in a
systems design and operation. In Sri Lanka too, the Contract Agents were encountered with
a number of genuine problems like: Lack of mobility due to non-availability of transport,
inadequate facilities of teaching aids, and lesser involvement of part-time farmers in
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Agnihotri, N. K. Agricultural Extension Service: An
Impact Study, 80-84.
The Agricultural Extension Service (AES) was launched in India on
a regular basis in early fifties. Since then, it has been rendering services to the
farmers on various aspects of farming systems. The chief aim has been to increase
agricultural production. The statistical figures speak that the impact has been quite
substantial as the food production rose from a mere 50 million tonnes in 1951-52 to a
record of 145 million tonnes in 1986-87. This quantum jump, however, cannot be solely
attributed to AES alone. There are several other factors inherent in the system.
Nevertheless, if the findings of this study are any indication, the contribution of AES to
India's food production can be claimed to the extent of 64.20 per cent especially in
Punjab where this study was conducted with 500 farmers. The striking impact of AES is
found mainly on cereal crops with the associated inputs like the use of improved seeds and
heavy dozes of fertilizers applications. Surprisingly, marketing services have also made a
notable dent on agricultural production.
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Dixit, V. B., K. D. Kokate & K. N. K. Chauhan. Rural
Youth Training in Arid Farming systems: A Gainful Experience, 85-89.
Past experiences show that the youth force in rural India has no
interest in farming systems. That is why they try the least to learn technical know-how of
farming operations. In this study, when a knowledge possession test on and farming systems
was administered to 52 rural youths of Rajasthan, it was found that the level of their
knowledge was extremely poor at 16.23 per cent. But it does not mean that they did not
have the potential. Within 8 days of institutional training at Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK)
of Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), their knowledge on and farming systems
went up at 50.37 per cent; a substantial gain of 34.14 per cent. Those youths who had good
leadership ability, cosmopolitan outlook in procurement of various information sources,
and favourable attitude towards farming systems are found more potential for knowledge
acquisition. Such youths, therefore, need to be used to set the stage for technology
assimilation, dissemination, and diffusion processes.
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Lakoh, A. K. Extension Agents' Job-design, Satisfaction,
and Performance Model: Determining Interfaces, 90-94.
The Extension Agents' Job-DSP Model (job-design, Satisfaction, and Performance Model)
is a systems framework structured with six interfaces: (1) Formal Training, (2) Social
Status, (3) Rural Background, (4) Work Experience, (5) Client-orientation, and (6)
Language-orientation. While lesser rural background of VEWs (Village Extension Workers)
leads to high autonomy design in the job, lesser work experience and low social status
result in less desire for autonomy. More of technical training in agriculture and high
social status did not turn up to be positive force for job satisfaction. Similarly, high
order of VEW formal training in agriculture does not necessarily mean that his job
performance is also high. The findings of this study show that Extension Agents with more
of formal training in agriculture are less likely to make frequent visits to farmers
Similar interface works with Social Status. Those who are well-versed with local dialects
and well-skilled in establishing interpersonal relations perform well in their job. They
are likely to make more frequent contacts with the farmers. These findings are drawn from
41 VEWs who were on their job in one of the Sierra-Leone's Integrated Agricultural
Development Projects. These derivations are perhaps equally good for all the developing
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