Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1987, Volume 3(1), June
O. S. Verma, Editorial
- Pickering, D. C. An Overview of Agricultural Extension: Its
linkages with farm research and the farmer-The World Bank Experience.
- Behr, B. The Successful System of Daniel Benor: How the World Bank
organizes the Green Revolution in the Third World.
- Success Story of Sreedharpur: Cooperative's way to rural prosperity-A feature by
NCDC, New Delhi.
- van den Ban, A.W. Communication Systems between agricultural
research and the farmers The Netherlands way.
- Westermarck, H. Advisory Consultancy in Finland: Farmers
attitudes towards the charging systems for extension services.
- Gandhi, S., I. Grover & V. Sangwan. Decision Making
Systems: Women subordination to men-folk in Indian rural farm families.
- Chamala, S. & M. C. Coughenour. Model for Innovation
Development, Diffusion and Adoption (MIDDA) A system for agricultural development.
- Umar, M., L. D. Lawrence & K. J. Hock. Fijian Farm Radio
Programs: Most effective in promoting agricultural development.
- Lakoh, A. K. Change Agent-Supervisor Interaction: Intensity
increases with the increase in mutual trust and satisfaction.
- De, D. Farmers Credit Behaviour: Status-oriented and aspirations
based prediction system.
- Agnihotri, N. K. Punjab Administration: Attitude of
agricultural extension officers.
- Verma, O. S. & Y. V. Bhaskar. Scientists Productivity:
Quantitative and qualitative assessment systems (b) Teaching.
Most writers agree that Extension is an educational process because it involves change
in the clientele system. However, modern thinkers opine that Extension is a Science as it
has got its own "Field of Knowledge". It offers to the Extensionists what to do
in a particular situation and enables them to predict consequences of their actions. The
outcome of this sort of cause-effect relationship leads one to believe that Extension is a
Science. Some people still think that Extension is not only part education and part
science but also a profession. The basic criteria characteristics that determine
professionalism are fully available in Extension. Firstly, professionals make decisions
based on general principles. Extension has got well-defined and dependable principles
based on which extension personnel make decisions. Secondly, professionals attain their
objective standards of performance. Extension has already developed a well-set standards
for their workers. Finally, professionals have superior knowledge of a particular field.
It has already been stated that Extension has its own 'body of knowledge' which makes
Extensionists superior in their technical know how. Thus, these basic criteria fully
qualify Extension as a profession.
In Netherlands, Prof. Niels Roling has recently made a radical change in the
nomenclature of Extension discipline. He has shifted the title from Department of
Extension Education to Department of Extension Science. Apparently, his argument stays in
favour of 'Science'. He advocates that Extension is "Interventology", a science
of intervening in the social processes. At one end of the process is 'clientele system'
and at another 'specialty knowledge generating system'. In between, Extension deals with a
special variety of interventions: those which use Communication as the instrument of
leverage to achieve voluntary change. Intervening to achieve this voluntary change through
Communication is a highly complicated subject which applies insights from other sciences
but adds up to far more than the sum of insights from Psychology, Sociology etc.
Dr. Roling further argues that the aim of all sciences is to have control over the
nature. This fits the general observation that as man controls his environment, the
environment becomes increasingly man-made.
The creation of this man-made environment is very basic to Extension. Hence, Extension
is a Science which deals with humans mostly in rural environment. But there are more
mundane reasons for the emergence of Extension Science. Back in 1977, Arthur Mosher wrote
that Extension was an accelerator, next to essentials such as markets, technology, price,
and so forth. He was and still is right. But what has happened is that these essentials
are increasingly taken care of especially in high potential agricultural areas. Once they
are, agricultural development becomes 'technology-propelled' and is driven by the
diffusion of new technology. In this system of agricultural development, Extension becomes
a central element. This has been the main reason that agricultural research, extension,
and education are considered the three most crucial policy instruments in Netherlands for
agricultural development. Such a role for Extension requires a well-developed Extension
A third important development is the expansion of sectors for which Extension Science
is very relevant. Public health, combating youth vandalism, recreation, traffic safety,
energy conservation, pollution control, and many other fields require attention of public
and private sectors to 'Extension'. Specific processes such as increased levels of
education, democratization, decentralization, and others all lead to greater reliance on
Extension (persuasive & informative communication and adult education). This sectoral
expansion of Extension has been experienced in the Netherlands in the very Extension
Department where Prof. Roling holds the Chair. He admits that his Extension Department is
now having more students from the stream of nutrition education, preventive medicine,
environmental protection, consumer education, and rural development. Agricultural
Extension or Extension Education is, therefore, no more a special pedagogy of agricultural
sector. This radical trend made him to retitle the subject called Department of Extension
Science. Congratulations Prof. Roling for the well-meaning lead taken in the discipline.
Pickering, D. C. An Overview of Agricultural Extension:
Its linkages with farm research and the farmer-The World Bank Experience, 4-12.
This paper gives an overview of Agricultural Extension and its linkages with research
and the Farmer from the perspective of the World Bank. In the process, six basic Systems
have been tried: (1) Commodity-focused approach (2) Community development-cum-extension
approach (3) Technical innovation-centered approach (4) Training and Visit system approach
(5) Animation-rurale approach, and (6) Several other over-lapping approaches. Relative
strengths and weaknesses of these different systems are explored and appropriate lessons
for current and future activities are derived. Sound policy framework, low-cost ratio of
extension workers to farmers, adaptive technology, well-organised and planned extension
programs, inter-disciplinary collaboration, dynamic extension management, and role of
women in FSR/E are some conclusive tips to investing in Extension.
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Behr, B. The Successful System of Daniel Benor: How the World
Bank organizes the Green Revolution in the Third World, 13-20.
Dr. Daniel Benor who coined the term "Training and Visit System" of Extension
has made the stride a green reality in Third World. He conquered hunger in India by
increasing food production to the tune of 10 per cent and in some regions notably in Kenya
the yields have risen even by 50 per cent. Now T & V is also to help abate hunger in
Africa. In addition, farmers in 40 countries around the globe are also receiving advice on
the basis of Benor's T & V method. "More Food-nothing else" has been the
Benor's development policy creed. This carries the "Green Revolution",
scientific-industrial agriculture, to the fields of small farmers. It's no miracle but a
small steps-beginning towards progress, says Benor.
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Success Story of Sreedharpur: Cooperative's way to rural prosperity-A
feature by NCDC, New Delhi, 21-25.
If you want to see the Cooperative System that works, go to Sreedharpur. You believe it
or not, the poor men in a cluster of 6 villages around Sreedharpur in West Bengal have
done wonders on the principles of self-help and mutual cooperation. They have opened their
own bank "Sreedharpur Cooperative Rurat Bank" with deposits worth Rs. 102.4
lakhs, a fulfledged consumer store, a grain-gola operation for the landless labourers, two
godowns of 16000 quintals storage capacity, a 14-acre tank for pisciculture, a cold-store
of 9300 metric ton capacity, a community centre for television & radio entertainments,
a higher secondary school, a village library with 1000 books, a healthcare dispensary, a
village post office, and a charity fund to meet the eventualities at times of distress
like drought, flood, and crops casualties. In addition, creation of employment
opportunities for educated unemployed youths, stipends to the extra-talented students for
higher studies, and leadership training to young ones are some other special features of
this rural cooperatives. All this has been possible partly because the society has never
been the victim of monopoly of a particular person or a group. Democratic norms appear to
have worked very well in this cooperative venture.
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van den Ban, A.W. Communication Systems between agricultural
research and the farmers The Netherlands way, 26-34.
Several organisations generate agricultural knowledge notably agricultural
universities, research institutes, experiment stations, agri-business firms, and farmer's
cooperatives. In Netherlands, the knowledge so generated is communicated to farmers via
six systems: (1) Agricultural Extension Service, (2) Agri-business Firms, (3) Private
Extension Agents, (4) Vocational Agricultural Schools, (5) Farm Magazines, and (6) Farmers
Organisations. There is not one System which makes communication effective but several of
them supplement each other. Ministry of Agriculture, farmers organisations, and
agri-business firms cooperate both formally and informally for the development of Dutch
agriculture. The two-way communication between research and the farmers is seen as policy
instruments to promote agricultural development. This policy has resulted in a rapid
increase in the productivity of agriculture which in turn has now caused a serious
economic and political problem with agricultural surpluses.
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Westermarck, H. Advisory Consultancy in Finland:
Farmers attitudes towards the charging systems for extension services, 35-41.
Ever increasing productions and increasing trend in funding systems for agricultural
research and advisory work has resulted in the change of ethics of extension services. Now
extension agents work more with those farmers who pay for the advices rendered. Data in
this paper show that the benefits received in relation to the costs of advisory services
have been quite satisfying to the farmers. Almost 100 per cent farmers are found to have
expressed their willingness to invest up to 500 FMK per annum if they are assured of good
advisory consultancy on matters pertaining to their farm and homes. This amount, however,
is barely sufficient to meet even the subsistent expenses. The cooperative base,
therefore, is found to be the most likely-fit system. In that, the government should pay
about half of all the costs and the farmers & communities should equally share the
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Gandhi, S., I. Grover & V. Sangwan. Decision Making
Systems: Women subordination to men-folk in Indian rural farm families,42-46.
On the whole, decision making systems in Indian rural farm families appear to be all
hotch-potch as the data presented in Table I show that 34 per cent families are still in
dilemma and none of the family members could be able to make firm decision in many of
their family affairs. In 30 per cent families, however, decisions are made in joint
consultations by husband & wife. In that too, women's role has been of subordinate
nature to men-folk. Activities-wise, husband oriented decisions are more pronounced in
farm matters. Joint family systems are prevalent mainly in economic activities as well
over 50 per cent decisions are found to have been made jointly by husband-wife and their
children. Social issues look like as if they are lying on sub-conscious level. It is
evident by the fact that 45 per cent of such issues are implemented just by 'no-man's
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Chamala, S. & M. C. Coughenour. Model for Innovation
Development, Diffusion and Adoption (MIDDA) A system for agricultural development,
MIDDA is a system devised to deal with agricultural development within the framework of
exogenous forces that are at work in time and space in a society. This is a holistic model
composed of three sub-systems: (1) Research and Development, (2) Extension and
Communication, and (3) Farming community. Whereas FSR takes care of research and
development, the T & V links up agricultural development to effective "tension
education system. Farming community which has been the subject of diffusion and adoption
studies in the past has been viewed as a settlement of homogenous groups which are
identified based on agro-climatic conditions, socio-economic status, resource
availability, farming systems, and not based on adopter categories. The homogenous groups
so categorised are termed as Recommendation Domains.
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Umar, M., L. D. Lawrence & K. J. Hock. Fijian Farm Radio
Programs: Most effective in promoting agricultural development, 56-60.
Radio has now been identified as the second most important source of information to
most farmers of the world. Fijian farmers are no exception to this generalization. Data
collected from 230 progressive farmers of Fiji Islands indicate that 88 per cent farmers
own a radio-set and listen to farm broadcasts three hours daily. This has significantly
enhanced their latest technical know how on Crop Management Systems. On the whole,
agricultural radio programs are reported to be quite good in their content, presentation,
and language. These findings are clear evidence to claim that the Radio role in promoting
Fiji's agricultural development has been quite substantial.
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Lakoh, A. K. Change Agent-Supervisor Interaction: Intensity
increases with the increase in mutual trust and satisfaction, 61-64.
In superior-subordinate situations, effective supervision, management style, mutual
trust, productivity, feedback systems, geographical location, job-satisfaction,
organisational climate, organisational communication, and personal traits are some of the
governing factors which either increase or decrease the Intensity of Interaction between
the two persons. This study carried out in Sierra Leone with 41 Village-level Extension
Workers and their supervisors found that the 'Trust' reposed in supervisors by the
subordinates is the prime factor which significantly increases the Intensity of
Interaction between the two. Similarly, when VEWs have greater desire for 'communication
with peers' the Intensity of Interaction with supervisors also increases. However, this is
not true when interaction is studied between VEWs and their peer group members. In this
situation, greater Intensity of Interaction of VEWs with peers is the result of their less
satisfaction with the supervision and communication links.
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De, D. Farmers Credit Behaviour: Status-oriented and
aspirations based prediction system, 65-67.
There has always been a demand from the financing institutions as to how
creditworthiness of a farmer should be judged. Should it be his political connections, or
his entrepreneurial needs, or third party guarantee. Perhaps, none of these. Findings of
this study suggest that we must look at his Socio-economic status and intensity of his
Aspirations. Higher status farmer is found to be more credit-worthy in loan acquisition,
utilization, and repayment as compared to low status farmer. Similarly, with higher level
of aspirations for new ventures are more prone to farm loan systems. These two factors:
(1) Socio-economic status, and (2) Level of Aspirations, therefore, are basic to determine
farmers credit behaviour. Financing, bodies should keep these two profiles of farmers in
mind while granting farm loans.
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Agnihotri, N. K. Punjab Administration: Attitude of
agricultural extension officers, 68-70.
Agricultural Development in Punjab is said to be on top of the map. It is not because
of some government policy or extra-bureaucratic performance but mainly because of the
existence of a very favourable agro-physical conditions in the State as also highly
receptive attitude of farmers towards modern farming. In this success, however, the share
of agricultural extension services can not be ignored. Agricultural Extension Officers
(AEO) are, in fact, instrument behind the spectacular increase in India's food production
to the tune of 155 million tonnes. This can be largely attributed to younger and better
qualified AEO particularly those who are free from heavy dependence of their family
members on them. Results of this study show that older and less qualified AEO who are
buried tinder the family worries are dissatisfied with their services and hence have
unfavourable attitude towards the administration. This is a sign of hindrance in
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Verma, O. S. & Y. V. Bhaskar. Scientists Productivity:
Quantitative and qualitative assessment systems (b) Teaching, 71-81
Teaching Productivity is a function of quantity and quality dimensions of Teaching.
Operationally, it is a ratio between the sum of Teaching load score "Tis" and
Teaching quality score "Tqs" divided by the Maximum Input Marks "MIM"
allotted to Teaching activities. Teaching load score parameter is worked out by the
Contact hours taught per week multiplied by the respective Teaching factor "Tf "
value. The "Tf " is a constant and is derived by dividing the MIM (Teaching
activities) by the "Cht-norms" fixed for a year. Teaching quality score is equal
to Average rating score "Ars" obtained on Malhotra (1975) Teaching Quality Scale
multiplied by Score conversion factor "Scf" value. The "Scf" is a
constant and is derived by dividing the "MIM" (respective category of the
Raters) by the Maximum Score probability on the Rating Scale specific to respective
category of the Raters. Teaching Productivity is expressed in percentages.
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