Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1986, Volume 2(1), June
O. S. Verma, Editorial
- Lionberger, H. F. Why Norms for Operating
Agricultural Research-Extension Systems: U.S. Land Grant Universities as a Case in Point.
- Verma, O. S. & V. V. Bhaskar. Scientists
Job-Norms: What Scientists Should Do and How Much.
- Roling, N. Extension in a Developed Nation: Is
there Anything We Can Learn.
- Kaur, G., T. R. Verma & R. S. Nirwal. Rural
Women: III-equipped with Technical Know-how Despite Favourable State of Mind.
- Mangat, I. S. & B. S. Hansra. Media-Mix
Discussions: Sure-shot Systems for Delivering Gainful Scientific Knowledge.
- Boone, E. J. Extension in the United States: A
Perspective on the Next Century.
- Singh, K. & O. S. Verma. Managerial
Leadership: Autocratic Scientocrats in Scientific Organisations.
- Bora, S. P. & G. L. Ray. Management
Differential to Agriculture: Small Farmers are Relatively Better Manager of Their Farms.
- Nandal, D. S & U. K. Pandey. Training and
Visit System: Extension Triumph Yet to Make Dent.
- Gupta, M. P. Participative Workshop: A Meaningful
Platform for Field Personnel, Extension Administrators and Scientists.
- Das, P., B. K. Sharma & C. Prasad. One-day
Training Programme: Efficacy at the Stakes of Learning By Doing'.
- Ogunbameru, O. B. Extension Internship: A
Pre-requisite for Students Degree.
A large number of letters piled up on the editor's desk just after the release of
inaugural issue. Excerpts drawn from some of these letters are presented here:
Dr. J. Paul Leagams, Emeritus Professor, North Carolina State University, USA:
Congratulations on publishing your new journal of Extension Systems. I have examined the
volume with much interest and find it to be well-done. Your editorial makes clear emphasis
on the importance and usefulness of the systems approach. Your selection of this theme is
excellent. It is significant, current, and the way of the future. Systems concept reflects
the growing complexities and hence the immerse range of variables involved in the modern
agricultural development process. Success demands that these variables be identified and
functionally integrated. Today, we have no tool made promising for analysis and synthesis
of complex process that is offered by "Systems Analysis". Your selection of this
approach assumes that the agricultural development process as a whole constitutes a system
and that it functions as a whole because of the essential interdependence of its many
elements. For the foregoing and some additional reasons, I encourage you to pursue and
emphasise the systems concept as the central theme for the journal. All good wishes for
continued success with your promising new venture into publication.
Dr. Herbert F. Lionberger, Emeritus Professor, Department of Rural Sociology,
University of Missouri, USA: I was pleased to see the inaugural issue of the Journal of
Extension Systems. Having seen advance drafts of what Paul Leagans and Hari Westermark
reported, I am pleased to see their articles. Having also been exposed to the good ideas
of some of the other authors, I am pleased to read articles by them also. In so far as
possible contributions should be focussed on the system and elements relative to its
intended purpose of providing people with usable information as opposed to extension
methods and strategies. I am sure that drawing the line at times won't be easy and perhaps
not practical. However, there is surely a great need to (1) critically study systems that
generate, transform, and disseminate specialty information in modernising societies, and
(2) provide much better than present vehicles for intellectual exchange among
professionals concerned with these systems. Journal of Extension Systems appears to be
unique to all other journals in this respect. Essentially, systems focus does make it
unique. Editorial published in the inaugural issue gives some good reasons why such a
journal as this, is needed in the field of Extension Science. For quite some time, I have
been complaining about the lack of concerned colleagues with whom to communicate and
exchange ideas. Journal of Extension Systems will perhaps meet this need.
Dr. S. N. Singh, Joint Director (Extension): Indian Agricultural Research
Institute, New Delhi: Journals of Extension Systems has come to me as a surprise. I am
happy to know that the initiative of starting the publication of such a journal with an
Editorial Board which appears to be quite formidable. I wish all success to the attempts
made by Dr. Verma in enlarging the 'scope of Extension Education through this Journal by
involving many scientists of j International Repute such as Dr. L. Paul Leagans, Dr.
Herbert Lionberger etc.
Dr. D. S. Sidhu, Professor-cum-Head, Department of Economics and Agricultural
Sociology, Punjab University, Ludhiana: My heartiest congratulations for bringing out
impressive issue of Journal of Extension Systems. I am going through this issue with keen
interest and expectations. I hope this adventure on your part will be of great success. I
am deeply impressed by the Editorial Board who are all men of letters. I hope you will
continue to keep up this good work as Chief Editor.
Dr. B. O. Ogunbameru, Head of Agricultural Extension and Economics, University
of Maiduguri, Nigeria: You deserve a pat at the back for the bold initiative taken to
embark on the publication of Journal of Extension Systems. It is a worthwhile venture. The
Extension profession definitely needs an internationally accepted and unified principles,
concepts, and practices. The systems approach is a right idea at the right time. I have
introduced the Journal to our University Librarian for subscriptions.
Dr. Devesh Kishore, Professor and Head, Agricultural Extension and
Communication, National Academy of Agricultural Research Management, Hyderabad: My hearty
congratulations on bringing out a journal in the area of Extension Systems. Actually, we
have been feeling an urgent need of a journal in this area for quite long. I hope you are
aware that recently a Centre on Management of Extension Systems has been established in
India with the assistance of World Bank. Journal of Extension Systems is started at a very
appropriate time. You have selected excellent articles for publication in this journal. I
am sure the Journal will be of much use to the development administrators, change agents
Dr. G. G. Nandapurkar, Head Extension, Marathwada Agricultural University,
Parbhani (Maharashtra): After scanning the contents of the Journal of Extension Systems, I
am personally of the strong opinion that the Journal will go a long way in broadening the
horizons of knowledge of members of extension systems and will certainly contribute to
elevate the stature of Extension Discipline. It is sedulous efforts on your part. On my
behalf and on behalf of the Departmental Staff, I wish a best of luck to your creative
Dr. R. K. Sharma, Professor, & Head, Department, of Tension Education,
Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar: It is my immense pleasure to have received the
inaugural issue of Journal of Extension Systems. This is indeed a milestone in the growth
of Extension discipline that a new profession oriented journal has been started. Once
arefully going through the Journal, I found that the quality of the papers including
editing is of very high order. What gives me further pleasure is that the members on the
Editorial Board come from the galaxy of Extension Scientists of the calibre of Dr. J. Paul
Leagans who has been the father Extention Education. Several other Internationally known
Extension Scientists and teachers from a number of developed and developing countries are
equally noted authorities on the editorial board. With such as excellent start, I am sure
that the Journal of Extension Systems will be of immense value in the promotion of rural
development, technology transfer and several other similar programmes. I like to convey my
heartiest greetings to the Chief Editor who has brought out this journal at a very
Dr. A. S. Murthy, Senior Training Officer, International Crops Research
Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad: The articles included in the
inaugural issue of Journal of Extension System show the you are perfectly in line with the
objectives. I wish you all success in your praise-worthy endeavour.
Dr. Himmat Singh, Associate Professor-Extension, Chandra Shekhar Azad University
of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur: I happened to receive your coveted and spirited
product"Journal of Extension Systems". I have got all good praise for you
and the desired outcome of your hard labour. I have got no words to appreciate but to wish
you go ahead with much more vigour and confidence.
Dr. A. G. G. Meson, Director-Extension, Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur:
I am sure the "Journal of Extension Systems" will be of immense use to the
Extension Scientists and practitioners. I feel that a column for the review of latest
publications on the subjects dealt in the Journal will be of use to the readers. Wish you
all the best.
Dr. C. Prasad, Deputy Director General (Agricultural Extension), Indian Council
of Agricultural Research, New Delhi: I thank you for your kind letter with a copy of the
Journal of Extension Systems which you have recently launched. This looks a useful
endeavour. I wish you all success troth personally and professionally.
Dr. Niels Roling, Dept. of Extension Education, Agricultural University,
Wageningen, The Netherlands: I want to congratulate you with your initiative for bringing
out Journal of Extension Systems. I am very proud to be on its Editorial Board. In fact, I
feel honoured. I will do my utmost best to serve the new journal and make it become useful
for our professional colleagues and ourselves. I hope we shall collaborate to mutual
Dr. Harri Westermarck, Professor in Extension Education, University of Helsinki,
Finland: I hope there will be a future for Journal of Extension Systems. I am a life
member of Indian Journal of Extension Education but have not received any copies for many
years. Similar opinion is held by Dr. Van den Ban of Holland.
Dr. A. K. Lakoh, Lecturer in Extension and Rural Sociology, Department of
Agricultural Extension & Economics, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone: The
articles published in the inaugural issue of Journal of Extension Systems make interesting
reading. I look forward to reading future volumes of the Journal. It was unfortunate that
the invitation letter to serve on the editorial board did not reach me in time. I look
forward to rendering my services to the noble cause of sharing knowledge.
I, the Chief Editor, O. S. Verma, endorse the views expressed by these Extension
authorities. From their expressions, one thing becomes quite apparent that the title
"Journal of Extension Systems" is the best alternative in the present context.
Systems focus is largely supported as the central theme of this journal. In the inaugural
issue, I had pleaded that Extension Science is the unitary-whole System composed of many
sub-systems like Communication, Arts, HRD (Training), Rural Development, Adult Education.
Rural Sociology, Extension Education, Agricultural Extension, Rural Management, and so on
so forth. The discipline, therefore, should be called as "Extension Systems". In
this editorial too, I keep up my stand and further justify the switch-over from the
traditional nomenclature like Agricultural Extension or Extension Education to Extension
The article by Prof. Lionberger in this issue throws light on the University systems
norms. The conceptual meanings of Land Grant Universities in his study are derived
altogether different from what these Universities have been doing these days. Instead of
people service, the major thrust has been on the academic jargons. This dilemma may be
because there have been no set standards yet developed for those who run these LGU. The
article by Dr. Verma and Dr. Bhaskar on "Scientists Job-Norms" will perhaps best
fit into this lacuna. Their findings, however, may not be universally acceptable and
applicable as the LGU systems vary from place to place.
Some interesting generalizations can be drawn from Dr. Niels Roling paper about
development of Extension as a science based on the experiences gained in fairly developed
agricultural systems like the Netherlands. His Extension model of Backstopping Systems
appears to be quite relevant. The idea of "Extension Internship" coined by Dr.
Ogunbameru is also no less important than backstopping. However, the lack of further
modalities make one extremely difficult to swallow his idea. Perhaps Dr. Boone in his
article "Extension in the U.S." has offered some practical pathways. His too
much emphasis on Extension Staff Development, nevertheless, appears to be whimsical.
This issue includes several other important articles which really need critical
appreciations. For instance, rural women study by Ms. Gulab Kaur et al shows that the
dilemma for change hangs over due to imbalance between lack of knowledge and favourable
state of mind. This finding only speaks that rural women particularly in India are short
of outside exposure. This sort of lacunae might be looked after by Media-Mix-discussions
as advocated by Dr. Mangat and Dr. Hansra in their article. The effectiveness of
Media-Mix-discussions, however, largely depends upon the amount of freedom given by the
Scientocrats. The study carried out by Mr. Kulwant Singh and Dr. Verma indicates that
today's Scientocrats are highly authoritative and Boss Centred Hence, decorated programmes
like T & V System has not made much headway even after a decade of its inception.
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Lionberger, H. F. Why Norms for
Operating Agricultural Research-Extension Systems: U.S. Land Grant Universities as a Case
in Point, 10-23.
The norms by which one well known and widely used agricultural research-extension
system ideally operates are used to illustrate the crucial importance of system norms for
(1) operating information systems for people service purposes and (2) for introducing them
into new social settings. Q-methodology is used as the method for defining the basic
content of the norms. Knowledgeables held that LGU must be repository of scientific
knowledge not in accord with the norms of academia but with continuing theory-to-practice
develop and deliver systems. Inducing extraordinary things in ordinary people need to be
basic to the operation of Land Grant Universities. This probably calls on the formation of
"People Service" designation of these universities.
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Verma, O. S. & V. V. Bhaskar. Scientists
Job-Norms: What Scientists Should Do and How Much, 24-33.
Research is found to be the top priority job for agricultural scientists with more than
50 per cent allocation of time. No scientist should be engaged in more than three research
projects at any point of time. Teaching job is worked out to be the second priority area
in which more than 25 per cent time is spent. On an average, each scientist should be
entrusted with 9 contact hours of teaching per annum if he is in a teaching institution,
i.e., roughly one course of 3 credits per trimester. Extension group scientists are
required to spend at least 22 days in the field. In order to attend miscellaneous jobs
like examinership, scientists should have at least 20 days in a year at their disposal.
Administration should be confined to S-3 scientists only.
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Roling, N. Extension in a Developed
Nation: Is there Anything We Can Learn, 34-43.
The Netherlands* is a small country by any standard. The US is 276 times its size and
India about 100 times. From its center, a healthy man can easily reach any frontier within
a day on the bicycle. Yet it is a fact that a very high productivity per unit of land and
labour has been achieved. And agricultural research, extension and education have had much
to do with this development. In fact, most Dutch observers would maintain that these are
the three policy instruments which can best explain the present "success" in
agricultural development. The question then arises, can anything useful be learned from
the extension experience of such agriculturally developed nation?
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Kaur, G., T. R. Verma & R. S. Nirwal. Rural
Women: III-equipped with Technical Know-how Despite Favourable State of Mind,
It is said that ignorance is better than half knowledge. It is so because half
knowledge is always dangerous whereas ignorance is safe. Perhaps, this has exactly
happened with rural women in India. The findings of this study show that almost 93 per
cent rural women have favourable orientation of their mind for change towards better home
but they are ill-equipped with technical know how. So, the dilemma hangs over their heads:
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Mangat, I. S. & B. S. Hansra. Media-Mix
Discussions: Sure-shot Systems for Delivering Gainful Scientific Knowledge,
By and large, the media-mix discussions are meaningful via-media for delivering gainful
knowledge. Live demonstrations mixed with face to face discussions, however, appear to be
a sure-shot learning situation for scientific deliberations.
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Boone, E. J. Extension in the United
States: A Perspective on the Next Century, 49-51.
Extension in the United States is at a crossroad in determining its future role in
responding to the economic crises many farm families, the community, and the consumer are
currently facing in market places. If past history is an indicator, Extension will
marshall and redeploy resources and offer programs designed to enable its clientele to
cope with the difficulties with which they are confronted. Such a response is, of course,
reactive. However, as we move toward the twenty-first century, Extension must become more
proactive in its programmatic thrusts. Extension must become more capable of forecasting
the future and designing programs that provide people with the knowledge and management
skills required to cope with a rapidly changing social, economic and political
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Singh, K. & O. S. Verma. Managerial
Leadership: Autocratic Scientocrats in Scientific Organisations, 52-57.
By and large, the findings of this study show that the leadership at higher levels of
administrative management is authoritative in nature. They make decisions and self to
lower cadre functionaries without giving them opportunities of sharing their views even in
the matters of their concern. This is indeed against administrative ethos. Furthermore,
managerial leadership is found to be "Boss-centred" and hence status
consciousness is dominant over the work management. Human relations component has almost
lost sight of its existence in Indian Scientocrats.
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Bora, S. P. & G. L. Ray. Management
Differential to Agriculture: Small Farmers are Relatively Better Manager of Their Farms,
Farmers neither too small nor too big are enterprising Small is beautiful. Results of
this study show that small farmers make best use of their scarce resources and thus set a
better example of their Managerial Capability.
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Nandal, D. S & U. K. Pandey. Training
and Visit System: Extension Triumph Yet to Make Dent, 61-63.
Although T&V system was introduced in Haryana seven years ago, its impact is still
not visible. The Village Extension Workers (VEWs) are not even known to the farmers as
they hardly make their visits to them. Farmers too are not aware of the tenets of T&V
system. This is what is the major concern of Extension Management.
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Gupta, M. P. Participative Workshop: A
Meaningful Platform for Field Personnel, Extension Administrators and Scientists,
Participative Workshop-a common platform for the field personnel, extension
administrators, and scientists has been quite satisfying and meaningful exercise at
Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University for strengthening the cause of technology
generation. It provides opportunities to share the experiences and hence has become a
means for enriching the professional competence. On the whole, 65 per cent of the people
who participated in these workshops reported their utmost satisfaction.
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Das, P., B. K. Sharma & C. Prasad. One-day
Training Programme: Efficacy at the Stakes of 'Learning By Doing', 67-68.
One-day training programme appears to have served on the Nagaland farmers very well as
the increase in their technical know-how on Jhuming cultivation has been quite
substantial. The stake 'learning by doing' has resulted in 46.91 per cent retention of the
technical knowledge. Such trainings need to be repeated after every seven months.
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Ogunbameru, O. B. Extension
Internship: A Pre-requisite for Students Degree, 69.
One of the ways by which extension students can gain field experience is through
Internship programme. Internship refers to a process of learning through supervised
practical experience, i.e., the process of gaining knowledge and skill through observation
and by doing. Within the classroom, it is not easy to link the extension students with the
realities of the field situations. Classroom instructions need to be combined with
observations of how the extension knowledge taught is actually applied in fields.
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