Journal of Extension Systems

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1986, Volume 2(1), June

O. S. Verma, Editorial

  1. Lionberger, H. F. Why Norms for Operating Agricultural Research-Extension Systems: U.S. Land Grant Universities as a Case in Point.
  2. Verma, O. S. & V. V. Bhaskar. Scientists Job-Norms: What Scientists Should Do and How Much.
  3. Roling, N. Extension in a Developed Nation: Is there Anything We Can Learn.
  4. Kaur, G., T. R. Verma & R. S. Nirwal. Rural Women: III-equipped with Technical Know-how Despite Favourable State of Mind.
  5. Mangat, I. S. & B. S. Hansra. Media-Mix Discussions: Sure-shot Systems for Delivering Gainful Scientific Knowledge.
  6. Boone, E. J. Extension in the United States: A Perspective on the Next Century.
  7. Singh, K. & O. S. Verma. Managerial Leadership: Autocratic Scientocrats in Scientific Organisations.
  8. Bora, S. P. & G. L. Ray. Management Differential to Agriculture: Small Farmers are Relatively Better Manager of Their Farms.
  9. Nandal, D. S & U. K. Pandey. Training and Visit System: Extension Triumph Yet to Make Dent.
  10. Gupta, M. P. Participative Workshop: A Meaningful Platform for Field Personnel, Extension Administrators and Scientists.
  11. Das, P., B. K. Sharma & C. Prasad. One-day Training Programme: Efficacy at the Stakes of ‘Learning By Doing'.
  12. Ogunbameru, O. B. Extension Internship: A Pre-requisite for Students Degree.

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A large number of letters piled up on the editor's desk just after the release of inaugural issue. Excerpts drawn from some of these letters are presented here:

Dr. J. Paul Leagams, Emeritus Professor, North Carolina State University, USA: Congratulations on publishing your new journal of Extension Systems. I have examined the volume with much interest and find it to be well-done. Your editorial makes clear emphasis on the importance and usefulness of the systems approach. Your selection of this theme is excellent. It is significant, current, and the way of the future. Systems concept reflects the growing complexities and hence the immerse range of variables involved in the modern agricultural development process. Success demands that these variables be identified and functionally integrated. Today, we have no tool made promising for analysis and synthesis of complex process that is offered by "Systems Analysis". Your selection of this approach assumes that the agricultural development process as a whole constitutes a system and that it functions as a whole because of the essential interdependence of its many elements. For the foregoing and some additional reasons, I encourage you to pursue and emphasise the systems concept as the central theme for the journal. All good wishes for continued success with your promising new venture into publication.

Dr. Herbert F. Lionberger, Emeritus Professor, Department of Rural Sociology, University of Missouri, USA: I was pleased to see the inaugural issue of the Journal of Extension Systems. Having seen advance drafts of what Paul Leagans and Hari Westermark reported, I am pleased to see their articles. Having also been exposed to the good ideas of some of the other authors, I am pleased to read articles by them also. In so far as possible contributions should be focussed on the system and elements relative to its intended purpose of providing people with usable information as opposed to extension methods and strategies. I am sure that drawing the line at times won't be easy and perhaps not practical. However, there is surely a great need to (1) critically study systems that generate, transform, and disseminate specialty information in modernising societies, and (2) provide much better than present vehicles for intellectual exchange among professionals concerned with these systems. Journal of Extension Systems appears to be unique to all other journals in this respect. Essentially, systems focus does make it unique. Editorial published in the inaugural issue gives some good reasons why such a journal as this, is needed in the field of Extension Science. For quite some time, I have been complaining about the lack of concerned colleagues with whom to communicate and exchange ideas. Journal of Extension Systems will perhaps meet this need.

Dr. S. N. Singh, Joint Director (Extension): Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi: Journals of Extension Systems has come to me as a surprise. I am happy to know that the initiative of starting the publication of such a journal with an Editorial Board which appears to be quite formidable. I wish all success to the attempts made by Dr. Verma in enlarging the 'scope of Extension Education through this Journal by involving many scientists of j International Repute such as Dr. L. Paul Leagans, Dr. Herbert Lionberger etc.

Dr. D. S. Sidhu, Professor-cum-Head, Department of Economics and Agricultural Sociology, Punjab University, Ludhiana: My heartiest congratulations for bringing out impressive issue of Journal of Extension Systems. I am going through this issue with keen interest and expectations. I hope this adventure on your part will be of great success. I am deeply impressed by the Editorial Board who are all men of letters. I hope you will continue to keep up this good work as Chief Editor.

Dr. B. O. Ogunbameru, Head of Agricultural Extension and Economics, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria: You deserve a pat at the back for the bold initiative taken to embark on the publication of Journal of Extension Systems. It is a worthwhile venture. The Extension profession definitely needs an internationally accepted and unified principles, concepts, and practices. The systems approach is a right idea at the right time. I have introduced the Journal to our University Librarian for subscriptions.

Dr. Devesh Kishore, Professor and Head, Agricultural Extension and Communication, National Academy of Agricultural Research Management, Hyderabad: My hearty congratulations on bringing out a journal in the area of Extension Systems. Actually, we have been feeling an urgent need of a journal in this area for quite long. I hope you are aware that recently a Centre on Management of Extension Systems has been established in India with the assistance of World Bank. Journal of Extension Systems is started at a very appropriate time. You have selected excellent articles for publication in this journal. I am sure the Journal will be of much use to the development administrators, change agents and teachers.

Dr. G. G. Nandapurkar, Head Extension, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani (Maharashtra): After scanning the contents of the Journal of Extension Systems, I am personally of the strong opinion that the Journal will go a long way in broadening the horizons of knowledge of members of extension systems and will certainly contribute to elevate the stature of Extension Discipline. It is sedulous efforts on your part. On my behalf and on behalf of the Departmental Staff, I wish a best of luck to your creative endeavour.

Dr. R. K. Sharma, Professor, & Head, Department, of Tension Education, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar: It is my immense pleasure to have received the inaugural issue of Journal of Extension Systems. This is indeed a milestone in the growth of Extension discipline that a new profession oriented journal has been started. Once arefully going through the Journal, I found that the quality of the papers including editing is of very high order. What gives me further pleasure is that the members on the Editorial Board come from the galaxy of Extension Scientists of the calibre of Dr. J. Paul Leagans who has been the father Extention Education. Several other Internationally known Extension Scientists and teachers from a number of developed and developing countries are equally noted authorities on the editorial board. With such as excellent start, I am sure that the Journal of Extension Systems will be of immense value in the promotion of rural development, technology transfer and several other similar programmes. I like to convey my heartiest greetings to the Chief Editor who has brought out this journal at a very opportune time.

Dr. A. S. Murthy, Senior Training Officer, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad: The articles included in the inaugural issue of Journal of Extension System show the you are perfectly in line with the objectives. I wish you all success in your praise-worthy endeavour.

Dr. Himmat Singh, Associate Professor-Extension, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur: I happened to receive your coveted and spirited product—"Journal of Extension Systems". I have got all good praise for you and the desired outcome of your hard labour. I have got no words to appreciate but to wish you go ahead with much more vigour and confidence.

Dr. A. G. G. Meson, Director-Extension, Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur: I am sure the "Journal of Extension Systems" will be of immense use to the Extension Scientists and practitioners. I feel that a column for the review of latest publications on the subjects dealt in the Journal will be of use to the readers. Wish you all the best.

Dr. C. Prasad, Deputy Director General (Agricultural Extension), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi: I thank you for your kind letter with a copy of the Journal of Extension Systems which you have recently launched. This looks a useful endeavour. I wish you all success troth personally and professionally.

Dr. Niels Roling, Dept. of Extension Education, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands: I want to congratulate you with your initiative for bringing out Journal of Extension Systems. I am very proud to be on its Editorial Board. In fact, I feel honoured. I will do my utmost best to serve the new journal and make it become useful for our professional colleagues and ourselves. I hope we shall collaborate to mutual satisfaction.

Dr. Harri Westermarck, Professor in Extension Education, University of Helsinki, Finland: I hope there will be a future for Journal of Extension Systems. I am a life member of Indian Journal of Extension Education but have not received any copies for many years. Similar opinion is held by Dr. Van den Ban of Holland.

Dr. A. K. Lakoh, Lecturer in Extension and Rural Sociology, Department of Agricultural Extension & Economics, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone: The articles published in the inaugural issue of Journal of Extension Systems make interesting reading. I look forward to reading future volumes of the Journal. It was unfortunate that the invitation letter to serve on the editorial board did not reach me in time. I look forward to rendering my services to the noble cause of sharing knowledge.

I, the Chief Editor, O. S. Verma, endorse the views expressed by these Extension authorities. From their expressions, one thing becomes quite apparent that the title "Journal of Extension Systems" is the best alternative in the present context. Systems focus is largely supported as the central theme of this journal. In the inaugural issue, I had pleaded that Extension Science is the unitary-whole System composed of many sub-systems like Communication, Arts, HRD (Training), Rural Development, Adult Education. Rural Sociology, Extension Education, Agricultural Extension, Rural Management, and so on so forth. The discipline, therefore, should be called as "Extension Systems". In this editorial too, I keep up my stand and further justify the switch-over from the traditional nomenclature like Agricultural Extension or Extension Education to Extension Systems.

The article by Prof. Lionberger in this issue throws light on the University systems norms. The conceptual meanings of Land Grant Universities in his study are derived altogether different from what these Universities have been doing these days. Instead of people service, the major thrust has been on the academic jargons. This dilemma may be because there have been no set standards yet developed for those who run these LGU. The article by Dr. Verma and Dr. Bhaskar on "Scientists Job-Norms" will perhaps best fit into this lacuna. Their findings, however, may not be universally acceptable and applicable as the LGU systems vary from place to place.

Some interesting generalizations can be drawn from Dr. Niels Roling paper about development of Extension as a science based on the experiences gained in fairly developed agricultural systems like the Netherlands. His Extension model of Backstopping Systems appears to be quite relevant. The idea of "Extension Internship" coined by Dr. Ogunbameru is also no less important than backstopping. However, the lack of further modalities make one extremely difficult to swallow his idea. Perhaps Dr. Boone in his article "Extension in the U.S." has offered some practical pathways. His too much emphasis on Extension Staff Development, nevertheless, appears to be whimsical.

This issue includes several other important articles which really need critical appreciations. For instance, rural women study by Ms. Gulab Kaur et al shows that the dilemma for change hangs over due to imbalance between lack of knowledge and favourable state of mind. This finding only speaks that rural women particularly in India are short of outside exposure. This sort of lacunae might be looked after by Media-Mix-discussions as advocated by Dr. Mangat and Dr. Hansra in their article. The effectiveness of Media-Mix-discussions, however, largely depends upon the amount of freedom given by the Scientocrats. The study carried out by Mr. Kulwant Singh and Dr. Verma indicates that today's Scientocrats are highly authoritative and Boss Centred Hence, decorated programmes like T & V System has not made much headway even after a decade of its inception.

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Lionberger, H. F. Why Norms for Operating Agricultural Research-Extension Systems: U.S. Land Grant Universities as a Case in Point, 10-23.

The norms by which one well known and widely used agricultural research-extension system ideally operates are used to illustrate the crucial importance of system norms for (1) operating information systems for people service purposes and (2) for introducing them into new social settings. Q-methodology is used as the method for defining the basic content of the norms. Knowledgeables held that LGU must be repository of scientific knowledge not in accord with the norms of academia but with continuing theory-to-practice develop and deliver systems. Inducing extraordinary things in ordinary people need to be basic to the operation of Land Grant Universities. This probably calls on the formation of "People Service" designation of these universities.

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Verma, O. S. & V. V. Bhaskar. Scientists Job-Norms: What Scientists Should Do and How Much, 24-33.

Research is found to be the top priority job for agricultural scientists with more than 50 per cent allocation of time. No scientist should be engaged in more than three research projects at any point of time. Teaching job is worked out to be the second priority area in which more than 25 per cent time is spent. On an average, each scientist should be entrusted with 9 contact hours of teaching per annum if he is in a teaching institution, i.e., roughly one course of 3 credits per trimester. Extension group scientists are required to spend at least 22 days in the field. In order to attend miscellaneous jobs like examinership, scientists should have at least 20 days in a year at their disposal. Administration should be confined to S-3 scientists only.

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Roling, N. Extension in a Developed Nation: Is there Anything We Can Learn, 34-43.

The Netherlands* is a small country by any standard. The US is 276 times its size and India about 100 times. From its center, a healthy man can easily reach any frontier within a day on the bicycle. Yet it is a fact that a very high productivity per unit of land and labour has been achieved. And agricultural research, extension and education have had much to do with this development. In fact, most Dutch observers would maintain that these are the three policy instruments which can best explain the present "success" in agricultural development. The question then arises, can anything useful be learned from the extension experience of such agriculturally developed nation?

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Kaur, G., T. R. Verma & R. S. Nirwal. Rural Women: III-equipped with Technical Know-how Despite Favourable State of Mind, 44-46.

It is said that ignorance is better than half knowledge. It is so because half knowledge is always dangerous whereas ignorance is safe. Perhaps, this has exactly happened with rural women in India. The findings of this study show that almost 93 per cent rural women have favourable orientation of their mind for change towards better home but they are ill-equipped with technical know how. So, the dilemma hangs over their heads: The danger.

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Mangat, I. S. & B. S. Hansra. Media-Mix Discussions: Sure-shot Systems for Delivering Gainful Scientific Knowledge, 47-48.

By and large, the media-mix discussions are meaningful via-media for delivering gainful knowledge. Live demonstrations mixed with face to face discussions, however, appear to be a sure-shot learning situation for scientific deliberations.

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Boone, E. J. Extension in the United States: A Perspective on the Next Century, 49-51.

Extension in the United States is at a crossroad in determining its future role in responding to the economic crises many farm families, the community, and the consumer are currently facing in market places. If past history is an indicator, Extension will marshall and redeploy resources and offer programs designed to enable its clientele to cope with the difficulties with which they are confronted. Such a response is, of course, reactive. However, as we move toward the twenty-first century, Extension must become more proactive in its programmatic thrusts. Extension must become more capable of forecasting the future and designing programs that provide people with the knowledge and management skills required to cope with a rapidly changing social, economic and political environment.

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Singh, K. & O. S. Verma. Managerial Leadership: Autocratic Scientocrats in Scientific Organisations, 52-57.

By and large, the findings of this study show that the leadership at higher levels of administrative management is authoritative in nature. They make decisions and self to lower cadre functionaries without giving them opportunities of sharing their views even in the matters of their concern. This is indeed against administrative ethos. Furthermore, managerial leadership is found to be "Boss-centred" and hence status consciousness is dominant over the work management. Human relations component has almost lost sight of its existence in Indian Scientocrats.

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Bora, S. P. & G. L. Ray. Management Differential to Agriculture: Small Farmers are Relatively Better Manager of Their Farms, 58-60.

Farmers neither too small nor too big are enterprising Small is beautiful. Results of this study show that small farmers make best use of their scarce resources and thus set a better example of their Managerial Capability.

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Nandal, D. S & U. K. Pandey. Training and Visit System: Extension Triumph Yet to Make Dent, 61-63.

Although T&V system was introduced in Haryana seven years ago, its impact is still not visible. The Village Extension Workers (VEWs) are not even known to the farmers as they hardly make their visits to them. Farmers too are not aware of the tenets of T&V system. This is what is the major concern of Extension Management.

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Gupta, M. P. Participative Workshop: A Meaningful Platform for Field Personnel, Extension Administrators and Scientists, 64-66.

Participative Workshop-a common platform for the field personnel, extension administrators, and scientists has been quite satisfying and meaningful exercise at Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University for strengthening the cause of technology generation. It provides opportunities to share the experiences and hence has become a means for enriching the professional competence. On the whole, 65 per cent of the people who participated in these workshops reported their utmost satisfaction.

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Das, P., B. K. Sharma & C. Prasad. One-day Training Programme: Efficacy at the Stakes of 'Learning By Doing', 67-68.

One-day training programme appears to have served on the Nagaland farmers very well as the increase in their technical know-how on Jhuming cultivation has been quite substantial. The stake 'learning by doing' has resulted in 46.91 per cent retention of the technical knowledge. Such trainings need to be repeated after every seven months.

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Ogunbameru, O. B. Extension Internship: A Pre-requisite for Students Degree, 69.

One of the ways by which extension students can gain field experience is through Internship programme. Internship refers to a process of learning through supervised practical experience, i.e., the process of gaining knowledge and skill through observation and by doing. Within the classroom, it is not easy to link the extension students with the realities of the field situations. Classroom instructions need to be combined with observations of how the extension knowledge taught is actually applied in fields.

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