Journal of Extension Systems
Article reprints (US $10/each) may be obtained by contacting the Chief Editor.
1985, Volume 1: Inaugural Issue
O. S. Verma, Editorial
- Leagans, J. P. Adoption of Technology by Small Farmers.
- Bhaskar, V. V. & O. S. Verma. Productivity Assessment
Systems Scale (PAS--scale).
- Westermarck, H. Monitoring and Evaluation of Programmes.
- Supe, S. V. Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers.
Lowdermilk, M. K. A System
Process for Improving the Quality of Agricultural Extension.
- Singh, S. N. & O. S. Verma. Farm Innovators.
- Friedman, Y. Why a Communication Centre.
- Waghmare, V. S. & S. K. Waghmare. Lab to Land Programme.
- Reddy, B. L. & S. V. Reddy. Dry Farming Orientation Scale
- Sharma, R. K. Intensive Cattle Development Project.
- Ballabh, S. & G. Prasad. Lack of Technical Knowledge
Attributed to Gap in Technology.
- De, D. Status Symbol and Innovative Entrepreneurship and Predictors
of Farmers Progressivism.
In the recent time, Systems thinking has emerged a very
strong phenomenon which has facilitated unification in many fields. It mainly aims at
understanding and integrating scientific knowledge of the specialised fields into an
unitary complex whole. In modern science, dynamic interaction of this order is the basic
problem practically in all the disciplines. Extension is no exception to this dictum.
In extension, functionalism has been so badly damaged that its legs and hands are
chopped off and torso is left in its abject state of cry. It is so because there has been
no patent system that could have been uniformly applied world ever. Even nomenclature of
the discipline is so varied that no two institutions follow identical system. In India,
for instance, some call it agricultural extension whereas others call it dairy extension,
veterinary extension, home science extension, and industrial extension. In the western
countries, the discipline has been twisted even more. Although the basic philosophy is
practically same, the nomenclature is so different that it is really very difficult to
justify the separate identity. In some corners of the world, it is the community education
whereas in others it is cooperative extension, adult education, continuing education,
agricultural education, agricultural extension, and in some it is still popularly labeled
as Extension Education. These different streams have made the subject hotchpotch.
The time has now come that we should really critically examine the present state of
this discipline. To me, Extension is a System in Systems framework. Hence, it is Extension
Systems. If we go by the general systems theory, assemblage of the various components of a
System which constitute the unitary whole is the central theme of systems thinking.
According to this concept, the term system covers a broad spectrum of our social world.
In biology, we speak of organism as a system of mutually dependent parts each of which
includes many subsystems like skeleton system, circulator system, and nervous system.
Anthropologists have pioneered the view that social customs, patterns of behaviour, and
institutions do not exist independently but must be considered in relation to the total
culture. In the field of psychology, the Gestaltists have adopted the concept of system
which is more than the sum of its components. Modern economists are increasingly using
Equilibrium concepts, input output analysis, interrelationship between goods and services,
and linear programming as sub-systems of a total System. This discussion only shows as to
how systems approach has become the operating framework for many physical and social
The language of systems theory amply justifies the fact that Extension is not alienated
from the mainstreams of systems framework. However, within the concept of systems, there
is still room for a focus on identification of isolated extension constituents, one to one
relations, diagnosis of minutiae of clients, specialty of manpower, and identification of
the tasks en route. In the light of this discussion, I take the lead to advocate the
necessity that disciplines like agricultural extension, agricultural education, continuing
education, extension education, adult education, cooperative extension, rural extension,
extension services, human resources development, communication centres and the like now
need unification into a complex whole so as to give birth to a discipline called
"Extension Systems" Not only land-grant universities and agricultural
institutions should fall under its orbit but also the traditional universities especially
in India where adult and continuing education department are in existence must shift to
this nomenclature. Extension systems is universal to all such centres of higher learning.
But the modalities as to how unification should be carried out is the subject of study
for which this journal is thrown open to professional workers. Prof. Lionberger has
rightly contended that we should now begin to think of ideal systems that could generate
information to solve diverse systems issues. Informational macro-systems enthusiasts,
therefore, must come forward to make their contributions in this endeavour. Journal of
Extension Systems throws its open invitation to all.
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Leagans, J. Paul. Adoption of Technology by Small Farmers,
The author summarizes procedures and results of a ten-year program to design and
field-test an innovative, cross-cultural, interdisciplinary model for researching
technology utilization, especially by small farmers. Five conditions were hypothesized: an
increasing need exists to shorten the time-span between technical discovery and
utilization; a more complex set of variables than past researches have addressed impinge
on adoption decisions; influences exerted by adoption researches-more than 2,000 to
date-on programming and policy decisions need enhancing; the compelling reasons why
respondent farmers do what they do lie primarily in "interpretive" information
about localized constraints available primarily from them; for these and other reasons,
adoption theory and research methodology need new conceptualizations. In support of these
and related propositions, the author provides theories and models and primary data from
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Bhaskar, V. V. & O. S. Verma. Productivity Assessment
Systems Scale (PAS--scale), 23-28.
The existing system of assessing performance of scientists
is based on extremely subjective, non-quantifiable, arbitrary and some what vague criteria
particularly on the traits like personality, attitude, intellect, initiative, ability to
get along, skill and imaginativeness etc. There are no set standards or norms against
which these traits could have been assessed. Assessment of the scientists on these traits
is normally made based on personal equations the scientists had with their supervisor
scientist. This system of assessment is against the basic philosophy of productivity. As a
general rule, actual performance of the scientist on the job should carry more weight than
the abstract criteria like appearance, personality traits and his attributes. Because of
the vast differences in the factors contributing to the effectiveness of scientists
engaged in different job areas like research, teaching, extension and miscellaneous
activities, criteria for the assessment of their productivity must necessarily be
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Westermarck, Harri. Monitoring and Evaluation of
Extension workers have always made reports. Systems of
reporting were developed and brought into use in most countries when national advisory
services were established. In Finland, for example when our service was established in
1797 the Swedish government (1) started to support special projects like vaccination and
potato and flax growing. However, at that time, there were no special regulations
concerning reporting on these projects. Reports simply described how many acres of
potatoes had been cultivated by farmers and how many vaccinations had been carried out by
the adviser. Sometime before independence in 1914 new regulations concerning reporting
were established. Most still apply to our advisory system as required by government. Our
advisory service is owned and administered by farmers but about half of its annual costs
are covered by government budgetary funds. Government as such does not play a direct role
in administration but requires annual plans and reports from our 18 regional services. The
emphasis in these reports is on activities conducted by the adviser and not on results
achieved as concerns farmers' levels of knowledge, skills, motivation or economic and
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Supe, S.V. Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers,
Herzberg et al. (1957) reviewed the literature and found
that there exists a good feeling and bad feeling in the job. With this hypothesis as a
starting point, Herzberg et al. (1959) conducted a study in nine companies by using
critical incidents technique and established the proposition that the factors accountable
to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction were different. The factors that were positive
to job satisfaction were: achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility,
advancement and salary. The negative were: policy administration, supervision, salary,
interpersonal relations and working conditions.
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Lowdermilk, M. K. A
System Process for Improving the Quality of Agricultural Extension, 45-54.
This article provides a systems framework for planning,
monitoring and evaluating extension programs. Extension by nature is an educational
process of transferring useful information and research findings to end users for their
benefits. This process and the particular extension model used constitute only one of
several complimentary organizational inputs required for effective transfer of knowledge
to clients. Although a powerful tool for agricultural development, the public mechanism of
extension alone is never a panacea. No single public or private organizational input for
agriculture will provide a quick, simple or radical solution to the complex human,
socio-economic and technical problems facing millions of farmers in a country as vast and
dynamic as India. Therefore, strong functional linkages with other support and service
organizations, policy-making levels, knowledge creation centres as well as other private
and public agencies involved in the transfer of knowledge are necessary to effectively
provide new and improved production possibilities to farmers.
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Singh, Satya Narayan & Om Singh Verma. Farm Innovators,
Operationally, the hypothesis is that a farmer who is
innovator in one arena is also likely to turn up as innovator in another arena. It means a
farmer who is innovator in Dairying practices can also be innovator in agricultural
practices. Because of this analogy, there happens to be overlapping of a number of
practices in which a farmer plays the role of innovativeness. He is practically earliest
in adopting all innovations of whatever the field pertinent to him and his social system.
This multiplicity of a farmer's role is called "polymorphic and multiple influential
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Friedman, Yona. Why a Communication Centre, 63-69.
Development means improving life conditions of a nation.
To do such improvement involves inevitably government expenditure.
In countries with precarious economic conditions government cannot assure basic
commodities (food, health care, housing and various services) in sufficient quantities for
the largest part of the population. In such countries the solution might be approached
through people producing themselves their own subsistence in kitchen-gardens, making
themselves their utensils, their house and keeping up themselves their health care and
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Waghmare, V. S. & S. K. Waghmare. Lab to Land
A study was carried out to examine empirically how far
'Transfer Technology' under Lab to Land Programme has helped the small farmers improve
their socio-economic conditions. Out of 4000 farm families adopted by Gujrat Agricultural
University under transfer technology Lab to Land Programme, a sample of 200 small farmers
was drawn from 17 villages of Anand and Nadiad Taluka of Kaira district. These farmers
confined their agriculture to wheat cultivation. Data were collected during June, 1979 and
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Reddy, B. Lakshmi & S. V. Reddy. Dry Farming
Orientation Scale (DFO--scale), 72-74.
How many of us know the secret that the two-thirds of
rice, one-third of wheat, 75 per cent of pulses and oilseeds and almost all the coarse
grains in the country come from rain fed lands mostly owned by small and marginal farmers.
This only signifies how potential the dryland farming appears to be in the country. Now
that we could know this vast potential, our scientists have developed specific
technologies, management practices, and crop pattern to suit all types of drylands. Some
of the dryland agricultural technologies which altogether constitute a system of dry
farming are listed below:
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Sharma, R. K. Intensive Cattle Development Project,
With a view to develop constraint-free extension system
for cattle development, a study was conducted in Gurgaon district of Haryana where one of
the oldest Intensive Cattle Development Project (ICDP) of the country was operating since
1967. The study covered both the beneficiaries and field functionaries of the project.
Data were collected from 180 farm families, 100 Livestock assistants, and 29 Veterinary
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Ballabh, Shri & Guru Prasad. Lack of Technical
Knowledge Attributed to Gap in Technology, 78-80.
The technological gap should not only be considered in
terms of physical gap between the technologies generated and what it has reached the
farmers but also in terms of what it would do to economic conditions of farmers life. With
this assumption, this study was carried out.
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De, Dipak. Status Symbol and Innovative Entrepreneurship and
Predictors of Farmers Progressivism, 81-84.
According to Parsons and Shills (1951), value orientation
refers to those aspects of one's behaviour which commit him to be observant of certain
norms, standards, and criteria in a contingent situation. These commitments can be thought
of values and values can be thought of as a continuum on which the individual locates
himself at a suitable point. This point establishes his value orientation which becomes a
basis for his future actions.
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